Monday, October 8, 2007

Catcher in the Rye: Psychology Assignment

Hey everyone, I wanted to point out that I just found out I assigned this topic on World Mental Health Day - October 10th.

The next blog assignment will be due Wednesday afternoon October 18th, not before. Your essay must be posted to the blog website by Wednesday afternoon to receive full credit.

- To correctly utilize online resources
- To provide a character analysis using psychological framework
- To write integrating text

Research one of the following psychological phenomena and provide a diagnosis of Holden Caulfield. State how Holden displays traits of your chosen psychological phenomena and using the text, provide insight into why Holden may have this trait and how this phenomena affects Holden’s relationships, sense of self, and/or maturing.
To structure your essay,
1) Describe your chosen psychological topic.
2) Provide evidence of Holden having this psychological phenomena. (You may wish to highlight areas in which Holden does not display traits.)
3) Using text, analyze why Holden may have this issue. (AVOID GENERALIZATIONS!)
4) What are the effects of this phenomena on Holden and others in the text?

Sections 2,3, and 4 could be separate paragraphs or combined together, depending on how you weave your evidence and analysis. Your conclusion should be a recommendation: After completing a psychological evaluation of Holden Caulfield, it is determined that…therefore, he should…
For your conclusion, research common treatments or medical plans to help an individual who may have this psychological phenomena.

You may choose one of the following to research:
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
Clinical Depression
Bipolar Disorder
Borderline Personality Disorder

How to research:
I am not looking for an indepth understanding of the medical and psychological traits and aspects of these phenomena; however, I expect you to have a fair understanding of its causes, symptons, and treatments. To do so, I suggest looking at these websites:


APA Help Center

You will be graded by using a standard 10 point MCAS Rubric. The response should be 600 to 800 words in length. All quotes from the text, both online and from Salinger, must follow MLA format. You will turn in your works cited/consulted sheet and a copy of your research to me the day of the assignment.

Good luck!


Herman T 2 said...
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Herman T 2 said...
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Chloe C 2 said...

Borderline personality disorder is when a person is emotionally unstable or has an unstable self-image. Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is somewhat hereditary, but mostly it stems from some traumatic experience either in a person’s childhood or a person’s adult life. People with BPD usually demonstrate “aggressive behavior, difficulty controlling emotions and impulses, problems with unstable and intense relationships, a low sense of self-worth, and frantic anxiety about being left alone” (
It is possible that Holden Caulfield of the novel The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger may have borderline personality disorder. He shows many of the symptoms of BPD including, but not limited to efforts to dodge abandonment, unstable relationships and self-image, actions which are self-damaging, ideas of suicide, unstable mood, and easily getting angry. His traumatic experience was when his brother Allie died.
Holden demonstrates “frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment” ( when he goes to visit Phoebe. Holden started thinking about what would happen if he died. He had decided to “sneak home and see her, in case [he] died” (Salinger 156) He didn’t want to be forgotten and went to his sister Phoebe, hoping she wouldn’t leave him if he happened to die. Nobody knew he was expelled from his school and he was forced to sneak into his own house. Some would consider the action “frantic”. There was also an instance of the symptom. Holden was scared that he would disappear. He pretended Allie was near and talked to him, saying “‘Allie, don’t let me disappear. Please, Allie.’” (Salinger 198) Holden didn’t want anybody to leave him or for him to abandon the world. He tries talking to his dead brother in order to cope.
Holden shows “a pattern of unstable and intense interpersonal relationships characterized by alternating between extremes of idealization and devaluation” ( The instance with Sally is one such example. At first he idolizes Sally, a friend of his, and “felt like [he] was in love with her and wanted to marry her” (Salinger 124) at the start of their date. By the end of their date Holden tells her “‘You give me a royal pain in the ass, if you want to know the truth.’” (Salinger 133) The date was quite serious since Holden told her of his hopes. At first, Holden thought she was a great person to be around. When Sally rebukes his hopes, he said his insulting statement and their relationship came to an end.
Holden thinks about death quite often. He shows “recurrent suicidal behavior, gestures, threats, or self-mutilating behavior”. Holden had an encounter with Maurice, who tried to extort money from him, which Holden flatly refused and was beaten up as a result. Afterwards, Holden felt like “committing suicide” (Salinger 104) but decided against it. Later Holden says he would volunteer “to sit right…on top of” (Salinger 141) an atomic bomb the next time a war comes. Holden has suicidal thoughts but he doesn’t have any suicidal behaviors as he has never tried to kill himself. He has imagined himself dead, but he is too scared to do any harm to his body.
It is normal for any normal person to want to be in the company of other people. The idea of abandonment influenced Holden very strongly because of his dead brother Allie. When Allie died, he abandoned Holden, Phoebe, as well as the rest of his family unintentionally. Holden could see his entire family was sad as a result of Allie’s death. Eventually, they came to accept Allie’s death, but Holden saw it as abandoning Allie’s legacy. Holden didn’t ever want to leave Allie and didn’t want Allie to leave him. Holden keeps thinking of suicide because he wants to be with Allie. Allie is in the sky and Holden thinks the only way to go up to him is to die. But Holden never did commit suicide because then he would be abandoning Phoebe and all others who miss him. The reason why Holden has shaky relationships is mostly his own fault. Holden told of his ideals to Sally, but she didn’t fully understand them and ultimately, rejected them. She didn’t think it was possible. Sally’s rejection made Holden mad, which led to him insulting her. If Holden did not confide in her in the first place, the relationship may have been saved.
After completing a psychological evaluation of Holden Caulfield, it is determined that he has borderline personality disorder. Therefore, he should seek professional counseling, therapy, or anti-depressants. It is advised that he try long term counseling as it yields the best results.
(yes, I realize it’s more than 500 words)

Mr. Walsh said...

Forgot the 500 word guideline. Most of you will probably write 600 to 800 words. That is turning out to be more reasonable.

Good luck.

Jess L 2 said...
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::HebaK:: 4 said...

Mr. Walsh, whats a person who has a psychological disorder called?

-psychopath sounds a tad bit too intimidating...

Jillann C 2 said...

Clinical Depression is a common mood disorder in psychology and psychiatry, where a person’s life and social status is interfered with extreme sadness, melancholia, numbness, and/or despair. This type of depression differs from depression and “feeling depressed”. This is because clinical depression is only diagnosed medically. The treatment for this form of depression is usually treated by therapy or in some cases, antidepressant drugs. Some of the signs of clinical depression are sadness, agitation, and disruption of sleeping and eating, and other symptoms which don’t include disrupting ones enjoyment but disrupting one’s paralysis.

In the book, The Catcher in the Rye, the protagonist, Holden contains the symptoms of clinical depression throughout the book. In one instance in the book where Holden is joyful and grateful that he gave a large donation to the nuns and the next minutes he becomes “so damn sad when I thought about it” (114). Holden shows signs of clinical depression because of his miraculous change of being elated to gloomy. During another section of the book, Holden had just left Mr. Antollini’s house in the middle of the night and went to retrieve his suitcase. By the time it turns to be morning, Holden goes to a diner to get coffee and donuts, but “couldn’t swallow them too well” (196). By Holden being “very depressed about something, it’s hard as hell to swallow” (196) that made him unable to eat which is caused by clinical depression. Holden demonstrates the fact that he can go from being completely happy to completely sad in a matter of second and can have trouble swallowing his food which is both two very significant symptoms of clinical depression. Since Holden has this form of depression, it’s clear that at these point of The Catcher in the Rye Holden has some unresolved issue in his life that are making him depressed.

After completing a psychological evaluation of Holden, it has been determined that Holden does have the condition of clinical depression and therefore, he should treat this particular condition with therapy. I realize that antidepressants are a possibility for this illness, but judging by Holden’s personality and how he deals with different situations, I think Holden would eventually abuse the antidepressants and damage himself more.

Mr. Walsh said...

Heba - I would simply refer to him or her by their name when at all possible. For the general, I would perhaps use "patient" or "sufferer". Good luck.

Hillary D 2 said...
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Hillary D 2 said...

The question, “Is Holden crazy?” popped up in many class discussions while reading and talking about The Catcher in the Rye. Holden, the protagonist of the story, may suffer from a disorder known as Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). This disorder could have been caused by Allie’s death or the sense of loneliness he built up ever since the death or it may even be hereditary. Holden’s problems with maturing and relationships could link to this possible disorder since it causes “emotional dysregulation”, “black-and-white thinking”, low self esteem on “self-image” and “identity”, and suicidal behavior (
The disorder may have developed around Allie’s death. It was traumatizing for Holden to experience his beloved brother’s death and it was all too much for him to handle. His mother also went through the same hurt and her negligence made him feel lonely and unloved. His loneliness caused him to want to hold onto to childhood to be, in a sense, closer to his brother and mother, which is a cause for his maturity problems. To him, childhood is innocence and adulthood is phoniness—the cause for the black-and-white thinking. Since he isn’t able to accept entering the adult world, he really doesn’t know who he is and what to do when it comes to adult matters such as sex. His past affects how he acts throughout the book.
BPD explains many reasons on why Holden acted strangely in many scenes. He revealed he knew a lot about Jane Gallagher when he told Stradlater, “She’s a dancer,” and “She wouldn’t move any of her kings” (31). Jane wouldn’t open up to him no matter how close they were. He took the relationship as more than it was meant to be, just friends. Black-and-white thinking is also referred to as “splitting” and Holden sees people as either innocent or phony, no in betweens. The way he only refers to Phoebe as “Old Phoebe” when he comes back to see her near the end demonstrates this splitting way of thinking (175). The term “old” means that person has already entered the adult world in his eyes. His red hat represents his self-consciousness with his family and it helps him to fit in and belong because since “[Allie] had red hair,” he also wanted red hair (38). He thinks about suicide and talks about it throughout the whole book, as pointed out by Jane Mendelsohn in Holden Caulfield: A Love Story. He once “pretend[ed] [he] had a bullet in [his] guts” and he always thought about death situations that he’d seen (104). His identity is unknown because he is unsure of when he should give in to adulthood.

After completing a psychological evaluation of Holden Caulfield, it is determined that he may have a case of Borderline Personality Disorder and therefore, he should go for psychotherapy or psychoanalysis. At the end, he did end up at a mental institution and that could also be evidence of this disorder being most fit for Holden’s character. The institution could help him cope with is instabilities and let him express and release all he’s been feeling. Having D.B. there with him also helped because his loneliness would fade with a close person with him.

Trang T 2 said...

Everyone experiences variations in mood, disappointments and a normal grief that accompanies the loss of someone you love. Clinical depression is a serious illness that causes changes in mental and physical health. It doesn’t mean feeling sad for a while but it persists for a longer period of time. There are several symptoms considering as clinical depression such as the loss of interest in daily activities, feeling of emptiness and sadness, thinking about suicide or suicidal thoughts. ( It is unknown what exactly causes this phenomena. It can be determined as biological and genetic factors, environmental influences and childhood developments.
The Catcher In The Rye by JD Salinger, the main character, Holden Caulfield has to struggle many emotions throughout the novel. Considering of his symptoms such as forgetfulness, loss of interest in friends and school, Holden has joined a rising number of clinical depression diseases as many other teenagers. Salinger successfully described Holden’s depressive behaviors through his daily activities and what he thought about the world.
His depression began developing after the dead of his younger brother, Allie. He had been shocked and not yet overcome the pain. He wasn’t able to find happiness. He was withdrawn from society and he had mentioned many times about suicide. “ I was 16 then and I’m 17 now and sometimes I act like I’m about 13’’ (p9) Holden seemed to be frozen and he never wanted to move on. Allie was a very important part in Holden’s life. Holden couldn’t control his emotions, he ‘’ broke all the windows in the garage’’ (39), he admitted ‘’ it was the stupid thing to do’’ but he didn’t know why he was doing it. It demonstrates his rage and inability to cope with this change.
Holden had lost his motivations and withdrawn from society. Through the story, he had been kicked out of four schools because of lacking credits. He didn’t express any interests in his social life and education. He made up a reason why he left Pencey, he explained to Mr Spencer that he was surrounded by phonies. Further more, he tried to separate himself with outside world. ‘’ The reason I was standing way up on Thomsen Hill instead of down the game...’’ (3) His lacking inability to communicate with others was the reason why he thought the world was whole bunch of phonies. The patient lacks motivation in school and he dropped out of school. His terrible depression led to his incapable ability to communicate with others properly.
He ‘’kept worrying’’ if he ‘’was getting pneumonia’’ (155) and he would be dead. He was nervous and lonely. There was nothing happy as the moment he spent with Phoebe and Allie. But he still cared about who would visit him when he died “ … about whole bunch of them sticking me in a god dam cemetery and all” (155)
After analyzing a psychological crisis of Holden Caulfield. He has proven to be suffering from clinical depression on account of the death of his brother, Allie. He lost motivation in his daily activities and interests in his friendship. Clinical depression can be treated chiefly. I recommend he should talk to therapy counseling and medications to heal the pain. A combination of psychotherapy and antidepressant medications can be an effective treatment. ( )
The patient should recognize his problem soon before it becomes serious. Moreover, Peering counseling and supports from family and friends are recommended.

kYLE W. 2 said...

When suffering from Borderline Personality Disorder, a person has a certain belief about their self-identity. Borderline Personality Disorder starts in a person usually because of a tragedy that occured in the past.People with this disease suffer from "fixed fantasies".In the "Catcher In The Rye" by J.D. Salinger, Holden Caulfield suffers from Borderline Personality Disorder.

During the story Holden shows many signs of symptoms of BPD.One major issue that follows Holden is his "fixed fantasy" of growing up.Throughout the book, Holden has these certain beliefs of sex.Bad experiences that Holden has in the past with sex leaves him to believe that sex is sort of scary and confusing.When Holden brings the prostitute in his room, he stalls because he is nervous.

Holden also shows more of these symptoms when his brother Allie dies.Holden suffers from his loss in a way that he starts imagining his own death.He goes to Phoebe wanting her not to abandon him if anything ever happened to him.Holden doesn't want to be forgotten and abandoned when he dies.

Another symptom shown by Holden that made me believe he is suffering from Borderline Personality Disorder was his belief of maturity.Holden is afraid to "grow up" because he thinks that adulthood has struggles.Throughout the book Holden tries to "rescue litte children from maturity".I believe that sex has something to do with his belief on growing up too.His bad experiences with sex has left him with fixed beliefs of maturity.

In the "Catcher In The Rye" by J.D. Salinger, Holden suffers from fixed fantasies and may be siffering from Borderline Personality Disorder.Other symptoms include beliefs of self-identity, thoughts of suicide, and uncontrollable emotions.The best way to help somebody with BPD is to send them to a Psychiatrist.

kYLE W. 2 said...

When suffering from Borderline Personality Disorder, a person has a certain belief about their self-identity. Borderline Personality Disorder starts in a person usually because of a tragedy that occured in the past.People with this disease suffer from "fixed fantasies".In the "Catcher In The Rye" by J.D. Salinger, Holden Caulfield suffers from Borderline Personality Disorder.

During the story Holden shows many signs of symptoms of BPD.One major issue that follows Holden is his "fixed fantasy" of growing up.Throughout the book, Holden has these certain beliefs of sex.Bad experiences that Holden has in the past with sex leaves him to believe that sex is sort of scary and confusing.When Holden brings the prostitute in his room, he stalls because he is nervous.

Holden also shows more of these symptoms when his brother Allie dies.Holden suffers from his loss in a way that he starts imagining his own death.He goes to Phoebe wanting her not to abandon him if anything ever happened to him.Holden doesn't want to be forgotten and abandoned when he dies.

Another symptom shown by Holden that made me believe he is suffering from Borderline Personality Disorder was his belief of maturity.Holden is afraid to "grow up" because he thinks that adulthood has struggles.Throughout the book Holden tries to "rescue litte children from maturity".I believe that sex has something to do with his belief on growing up too.His bad experiences with sex has left him with fixed beliefs of maturity.

In the "Catcher In The Rye" by J.D. Salinger, Holden suffers from fixed fantasies and may be siffering from Borderline Personality Disorder.Other symptoms include beliefs of self-identity, thoughts of suicide, and uncontrollable emotions.The best way to help somebody with BPD is to send them to a Psychiatrist.

Ngoc D. 4 said...

Holden is currently residing in a rest home with the likelihood that he is diagnosed with one psychological phenomenon. There is a high possibility that Holden is being treated for borderline personality disorder. Borderline personality disorder is a mental disorder that can be found in early adulthood. It can be characterized by having unstable emotions, being impulsive, and problems in relationship, with self-image, and behavior. Most people who are diagnosed with this disorder had childhood ordeal, though the disorder can also run in the family. BPD does not usually develop until the early years of adulthood, and it is a serious disorder. People who suffer from the disorder might also experience depression and involve in substance abuse. Treatments are available; however, it is difficult and can take years to greatly improve.
Holden Caulfield shows signs that he is suffering from borderline personality disorder. Like most people who have diagnosed with BPD, Holden had experience a disturbance in his childhood. He had lost a brother, who had “leukemia and died” (38) when the family was in Maine. Another sign of the disorder is that when his beloved brother died, Holden impulsively “broke all the goddam windows with [his] fist, just for the hell of it” (39). Furthermore, the disorder can be found in people who are in their early adulthood which perfectly fit Holden, a “sixteen” (9)-year-old boy. However, he “sometimes…act like [he’s] about thirteen” (9), showing that he’s having trouble with his identity. Moreover, another characteristic that tie Holden to BPD is his problem in relationship. Holden is always appearing alone and when he does have company, he drives them away. In his meeting with Sally Hayes, Holden has trouble controlling his emotion and is “screaming at her” (132) when she refuses to run away with him. Holden then verbally commented that she gives him “a royal pain in the ass” (132). After the comment, nothing can be salvage and he is all by himself once again. Throughout his time alone in New York, Holden encounters various people; however, he still ends up by himself, unable to attain a proper relationship with another person except for his little sister. Another indication that Holden is suffering from BPD is his constant consumption of alcohol. Holden is only sixteen and he is familiar with about every bar in New York City. He admitted that he “go[es] there (the Wicker Bar) quite a lot” (141) and while he was in the bar, he “had a couple of Scotch” (142). Because of his behavior and thought process, Holden shows that he has a high possibility that he is suffering from borderline personality disorder.
After completing a psychological evaluation of Holden Caulfield, it is determined that Holden has borderline personality disorder therefore, he should seek help immediately since this is a serious matter that needs to be taken care of. Nevertheless, no matter how serious the disorder is, with time, anyone can get better. Although setbacks are common and there is no cure, no one should get discourage to get guidance. With counseling from experts, the symptoms can be managed. Also, many people can get prescribed with medicine such as antidepressants or mood stabilizers to meet their individual needs. In conclusion, Holden is diagnosed with borderline personality disorder and should hire a psychologist to treat his symptoms right away.

barbara j 2 said...

Anxiety is a “physiological state defined with cognitive, somatic, emotional and behavioral components” (Seligman, Walker and Rosenhan, 2001). These forms feelings known as fear, apprehension, or worry and heart palpitations, heart that beats quickly, nausea, when one’s stomach feels sick to the point of vomiting, chest pain, and headache, comes along with these feelings. Emotionally, “anxiety causes a sense of dread or panic and physically causes nausea, and chills… However, anxiety is not always pathological or maladaptive: it is common emotion along with fear, anger, sadness, and happiness…” (
In the novel The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger, Holden Caulfield suffers from the anxiety symptom. In many different scenes of this novel, Salinger shows how Holden could be affected by this symptom. When Stradlater went to a date with Jane, a good friend of Holden, he felt “so damn worried” (Salinger 40). He was worried that Stradlater who he describes as “unscrupulous,” would hurt her. It stressed him out so much that he got into a fight with Stradlater. It is one way to show how Holden could be affected by anxiety because worries are one of the components form by it.
There was also this time when Holden was so scared that “[his] voice was shaking like a bastard” (Salinger 102). Holden was so scared when Maurice came up to his room with Sunny, the prostitute, and asked him for the money he owed them. Holden felt afraid often times throughout this novel. Another example was when he thought that “every time [he’d] come to the end of a block and stepped off the goddam curb, [he’d] never get to the other side of street…” (Salinger 197). “[He] started sweating like a bastard – [his] whole shirt and underwear and everything” (Salinger 198). The more Holden feared to disappear, on street corner, the more Holden sweated. Researches on anxiety stated that “somatic signs of anxiety may include pale skin, sweating, trembling, and papillary dilation” ( Therefore, Holden sweating and trembling is another proof that he could be affected by anxiety.
Holden is also characterized as a depressed teenager who is lonesome. He repeatedly says in the text that he is depressed or that something makes him “even more depressed,” which is another emotion that comes along with anxiety. “Theologians like Paul Tillich and psychologists like Sigmund Freud have characterized anxiety as the reaction to what, Tillich called the trauma of nonbeing. That is, the human comes to realize that there is a point at which he or she might cease to be (die)” ( Holden always talks about him wanting to commit suicide. For example, later on after Maurice had punched him in his stomach; he said “what I really felt like, though, was committing suicide. I felt like jumping out the window. I probably would’ve done it, too, if I’d been sure somebody’d cover me up as soon as I landed” (Salinger 104). Holden can’t take it anymore and wants to kill himself thinking that it would be the only solution to his problems.
Now that the psychological evaluation of Holden Caulfield is completed, it is determined that he is affected by anxiety. Therefore, he should seek out for counseling, relaxation techniques or pharmacologically with benzodiazepines. After months of counseling and relaxation techniques, Holden could have the chance to be more comfortable and live a happier life with his family, and friends.

Jeniffer M 2 said...

Holden Caulfield has shown many symptoms of Depression, including a significant loss, negative thoughts, suicidal thoughts, denial, loss of interest in hobbies, and/or confession.
Mr. Caulfield has experienced a traumatic loss, his closest brother, Allie, who "got leukemia and died" (38). He was only thirteen when this happened, which has taken a toll on his mental health.
Negative thoughts occupy Mr.Caulfield's mind very often. When on the train with Ernest Morrow's mother, even after having a pleasant conversation with her, he "wouldn't visit that sonuvabitch Morrow...even if [he] was desperate" (58).
Mr. Caulfield is in denial of the death of his brother, Allie, and says "especially if [he] were about a thousand times nicer than the people [one] know[s] that're alive and all" (171).
Mr. Caulfield has been showing a loss of interest in his hobbies. He once was an avid reader and talked about books a lot. He especially liked "The Secret Goldfish" (1), which his brother D.B. wrote.
Mr. Caulfield has admitted many times that he was depressed. Confessions are rare, but when admitted, it is most likely that he/she is depressed. Mr. Caulfield states that Pheobe's behavior "made [him] even more depressed" (169).
Treatment may include supportive therapy, such as changes in lifestyle and behavior, pyschotherapy, and/or medication. Without treatment, the patient has a high chance of suicide.

Consuelo T 2 said...

Borderline personality disorder is a condition that results in many things such as low self esteem, impulsiveness, and relationship problems, unstable emotions, aggressive behavior, anxiety of being alone, self-injury, and suicidal behavior. Sometimes the cause of this disorder runs in the family. However, a lot of times people also develop the disorder from trauma at a young age. There is no cure for personality disorder, but there is treatment such as counseling and other treatments.
Holden Caulfield from the novel Catcher in the Rye by J.D Salinger displays the characteristics for personality disorder. Throughout the book Holden shows symptoms such as impulsiveness, suicidal behavior, fear of being alone, and trouble with relationships. The causes of this disorder is unquestionably Allie�s death that had a big impact on him, nevertheless there is a treatment for it.
Holden appears to have random impulsive thoughts or ideas. For instance when he is talking to Sally, �all of a sudden [he] [gets] an idea�. He starts telling her he wants to, �[get] the hell out of here�, he continues to rant on and says �later we [can] get married or something� (Salinger 132). Out of nowhere he has this urge to just runway with Sally who he barely likes which shows Holden�s impulsiveness. At one point of the story Holden displays suicidal behavior. After trying to go to sleep, he reveals something important. Holden states that �what [he] really [feels] like, though is committing suicide.�(104).He only thinks about committing suicide, but doesn�t attempt it. Even though he doesn�t attempts it, it is still serious to even have suicidal thoughts. Holden clearly displays these two traits, of impulsiveness, and suicidal behavior.
The most likely cause for his disorder is trauma at a young age. When Holden�s Brother Allie �got leukemia and died� (Salinger 38) it had a huge effect on him. He was only 13 when he died and Allie was the most important person to him. Holden admired his brother so much because he was �terrifically intelligent�, and �the nicest� (Salinger 38), characteristic he didn�t have. It affected him a greatly that he �broke all the goddam windows with his fist� (Salinger 39). �[His] hand still hurts [him] once in a while� (Salinger 39), which is a reminder of what happened. Death is hard for anyone, and this traumatic experience affected him a great deal.
Borderline personality affects the person itself and the people around them. An example is Holden�s lack of relationship with other people. He doesn�t really have a good relationship with others since he doesn�t like many people, or either thinks they�re phonies. For instance when Holden goes out with Sally he appears to not enjoy her company, Holden �sort of [hates] old Sally� (Salinger 128). Another bad relationship Holden has is with Stradlater his own roommate he can�t get along with. Holden gets aggressive with him, and he �[tries] to sock him� (Salinger 42) when Holden gets defensive with the topic of Jane. Holden inability to like someone influences his companionship with others. However Holden is desperate for human contact. Anxiety of being alone is another characteristic of borderline personality disorder. He fears of being alone, he calls or thinks of calling people to meet up with him. Holden debates whether or not to �[give] old Jane a buzz� (Salinger 61) and then ends up calling a somewhat promiscuous girl named Faith, a girl he barely knows. Holden is desperate for human contact he even agrees to get a prostitute, but they only end up talking. Holden�s need for companionship makes him a candidate for borderline personality disorder.
After making an entire psychological observation, it is concluded that Holden Caulfield has borderline personality disorder therefore, he should seek help. There is no cure for his disorder but there are other ways of dealing with it. There are treatments such as counseling, and medicine including antidepressants or mood stabilizers. He will ultimately get better with counseling which is an essential part in the recovering process.

Mr. Walsh said...

Remember your works cited/consulted for tomorrow - Mr. Walsh :)

Nikita R 2 said...

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is a serious disorder if a person does not get help for themselves. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) has many causes, which can affect a person if they have some of the issues. Some of the causes are the emotional problems, such as anger that the person just can not control on their own. There is also depression, guilt, grief, and sometimes the person can also have low-self esteem. There are also the relationship problems, which can occur when you do not have a person you can talk to and express your feelings to. Also, there is the life cycle in which a person does not like the idea of growing up, such as becoming a teenager or coming out of the teenager stages. Some of the symptoms are emotional detachment, depression, and aggressiveness. For treatment for PTSD the best thing would be to talk to your doctor and they could help you by sending you to counseling cognitive-behavioral therapy.

I do believe that Holden suffers from Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. Holden thinks that everything in the world and all of the people in the world are phony, which makes me think that Holden may have low-self esteem. Also, the big thing is that Holden does not want to grow up; he does not want to enter into the adult world. From thinking that everyone is a phony and not wanting to grow up, Holden has come up with the symptoms of PTSD. Holden has had emotional depression when his brother Allie passed away. Allie "got leukemia and died" (38), and that was really hard for Holden to take in. At the time of Allie’s death Holden was a young boy; he was only thirteen and that is a lot for a young child to handle. Other people’s comments can also have an affect on a person with PTSD. When Holden was talking to Phoebe he had said “It made me even more depressed when she said that” (169). Most of the time people who suffer for this disorder could take things the wrong way and turn it into something else. I think that Holden has this symptom because he has low-self esteem and with that comes everything else. Holden may feel a little intimidated by other people in the world and to help himself cope with that he calls everyone a phony.

After reading about Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, it may be reasonable to say that Holden Caulfield does suffer from PTSD. To help with the treatment Holden should go and see a doctor and maybe then go to counseling and get some therapy.

Victoria P. 4 said...

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is an emotional reaction to an extreme trauma. There are many reasons why this disorder happens. One experience that Holden has gone through is a serious death with a loved one. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder has also been very common with families who go through cancer related problems with themselves or their relatives. This disorder is an emotional concern and is usually diagnosed when there has been a tremendous change in a persons life due to a family loss or problem.

Holden Caulfield has many traits that follow Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. Throughout the novel Holden is a very depressed, restless and emotional . All of these descriptions are all symptoms for this disorder. Holden is always talking about how so many things can depress him. For instance, “All the two of them were eating for breakfast was toast and coffee” Although it is not a huge deal, “ That depressed me”(110). Holden mentions the fact that something so little could depress him. Depression is one of the most important symptoms in Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Holden does not just say it once throughout the book. Once again Holden claims to be “feeling blue as hell”(154). All of this negative energy that Holden has and expresses is just another reason why Holden should be diagnosed with this terrible illness.

What may have caused Holden’s trauma to occur? The main reason why Holden is following the symptoms of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is because of his hard time coping with the loss of his brother, Allie. Holden is never fond of people, including some of his family members, but both Allie and his sister Phoebe are both people that he loves and cares for. Holden looks up to both of them although they are younger. “He was also the nicest, in lots of ways”(38). Usually Holden does not compliment people and the reader is shown that he cares much more than Holden has shown in the past. One side of Holden feels guilty for not expressing his emotions for Allie before it was too late. This can be a problem because the death has mentally scarred Holden for the rest of his life, leaving him irritable, restless and constantly depressed.

Not only is Holden highly affected by this disorder, but his friends and people around him constantly have an impact on him . When Holden writes a composition for Stradlater, he has a memory of his brother Allie and of how much he truly misses him. Holden writes about Allie, and Stradlater is upset because it was not the right kind of composition he was looking for. Holden is affected because he takes offense that the composition is not up to the expectations of Stradlater. It is apparent that Holden is reminiscing on his brother and the good times they had shared together. The constant remembrance of Allie and his death is a sign on PTSD, and a constant reminder that Holden has had a true traumatic experience in his younger years.

After researching Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, and witnessing Holden’s entire life and thoughts, it is clear that Holden has a very serious case of PTSD. The continuous attitude problem, irritability, and depression all add up to a very emotional case of PTSD. For help, Holden should seek therapy to let go of his built up emotions, and be put on antidepressants. This will help Holden become more open with his problems, and learn how to deal with his rough time accepting Allie’s death.

Belinda L 4 said...

Borderline Personality Disorder

Borderline personality disorder is common to numerous Americans today. The disorder has symptoms such as the fear of being abandoned and being unstable in areas such as relationships, mood, self-image, and behavior. A person with borderline personality disorder will also have suicidal feelings along with depression and unexplained anger. Holden, the protagonist of the novel, The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger, has multiple indications of suffering from borderline personality disorder after his brother, Allie dies. Holden shows frequent signs of the disorder after Allie was mentioned and loneliness became a huge part of the novel. The issue of borderline personality disorder has affected Holden to behave in unnatural ways.
Holden shows signs of suffering from borderline personality disorder. He is unsatisfied with his appearance “because [he] is six foot two and a half and [he] has grey hair.” (9)Furthermore, Holden depicts unintended anger and depression as problems he has. Holden gets angry for little things like Jane and Stradlater going out late, and also when Sally was appearing to be “phony.” Holden loses many companions because of the symptoms of BPD, (borderline personality disorder.) It is common for “people with borderline personality disorder typically find that their anger, impulsivity, stormy attachments and frequent mood swings push others away.” ( Holden displays such actions to multiple minor characters such as Sally, Ackley, Mr. Antolini, and Luce. Depression comes in when Holden is lonely and has no one to talk to. At one point “[he] felt so lonesome, all of a sudden. [He] almost wished [he] was dead.” (48) Holden insists in different ways that he has BPD.
Allie’s death has created a huge disturbance to Holden’s character. Holden seems to be suffering from borderline personality disorder because of it. “[P]eople with BPD often engage in risky behavior.” ( Holden breaks his hand by smashing windows in his garage right after the death of Allie. The pressure and stress from this tragedy not only affected Holden but others as well, especially his mother, who in turn neglected Holden by not playing the role of a motherly figure, but as a person who no longer cares. Holden also shows symptoms of BPD by having unstable moods. He has said many times to call someone or do something but in the end, it never happened because “[he] didn’t feel like it. You have to be in the mood for that stuff.”(116) Holden also suffers from BPD because of loneliness and feelings of emptiness. No one in the story understands or even tries to understand Holden except for Phoebe. She tries to but is still too young to fully understand the pain that Holden is feeling. This is another cause that contributes to Holden suffering from BPD.
The borderline personality disorder affected Holden in ways such as acting a certain way and saying harsh comments. Holden has periods of unintended anger, problems with relationships, he injures himself, and he also has “loss of contact with reality.” ( Holden “thought [he] was dying” (103) after Maurice punched him in the stomach. He “sort of started pretending [he] had a bullet in [his] guts (103-104.) Another effect of BPD that Holden received was suicidal thoughts. What “[he] really felt like, though, was committing suicide. [He] felt like jumping out the window” (104) whenever felt lonely.
After evaluating Holden and the signs for borderline personality disorder, it can be concluded that Holden is unfortunate enough to suffer from borderline personality disorder. The disorder is serious. Treatments include psychotherapy, medications, and hospitalization. Psychotherapy teaches the clients how to handle emotions and improve relationships. Many others also use medications such an antidepressants to help with the disorder. Some more serious cases will need to go into a hospital or clinic so they are able to keep them from injuring themselves. There is also evidence that people with the disorder will eventually get better overtime and will be able to live a normal life.

Amir Q. 4 said...

Most stress can be cured by the human mind’s physiological defenses yet those that cannot be coped with so easily develop into the condition known as post traumatic stress disorder. Post traumatic stress disorder is a very severe and long lasting emotional reaction to extreme levels of stress. These extreme levels of stress can be caused by anything, but most cases occur due to exposure to physiological trauma (which can be things that occur normally in life, such as the loss of a loved one). Symptoms that are associated with post traumatic stress disorder include and range from nightmares and flashbacks of the incident to panic attacks. A sufferer of post traumatic stress disorder can be recognized by their want to isolate themselves, deep depression, and anxiety. Post dramatic stress disorder can affect anyone and everyone and can be very dangerous and could become suicidal if left untreated.

Holden seems to possess some of the traits associated with post traumatic stress disorder. In J.D. Salingers “The Catcher in the Rye” the main character, Holden Caulfield, suffers from post traumatic stress disorder throughout the course of the book. His personality is very gloomy and he himself is very pessimistic, Holden also is very depressed. Throughout the book lie references to death and suicide, “It killed me” (2) Holden said, as he expressed his feelings about the movies, Hollywood and his Brother, D.B., being a writer in Hollywood to the reader. “This is a people shooting hat… I [Holden] shoot people in this hat” (22) has two meanings; Holden is referring to the literal meaning of shooting people (which refers to death) and the actual meaning: he judges people in the hat. The cause of his disorder can be attributed to the death of his younger brother Allie’s death. Many of the traits used to describe PTSD are expressed by Holden.

Holden shows the reader that he has post traumatic stress disorder many times throughout this work of literature. The main cause of Holden’s case of PTSD is the death of his little brother Allie. After Allie’s death Holden “[Broke] all [of] the windows in the garage.” (39). He is expressing his anger and frustration caused by Allie’s death onto the windows; this however will not stop his case of post traumatic stress disorder. Holden is still unable to cope with this death and this causes his pessimistic attitude and his gloomy moods along with his constant references to death. Hid brother’s death, however, is not the only cause of his condition, his refusal to accept maturity and his fear of adulthood also add to his PTSD. Holden does not want to accept maturity and adulthood because along with it comes phoniness as he thinks. Holden despises phoniness above all else and with what he has witnessed so far all adults are phony, which he does not want to become. Throughout “The Catcher in the Rye” Holden shows to the reader that he may have post traumatic stress disorder.

Holden’s post traumatic stress disorder affects him and all of those around or close to him severely. He and his little sister Phoebe cannot see eye to eye because she does not understand why Holden has this very negative attitude and tells him that “[He] doesn’t like anything that’s happening” (169). His PTSD ruins his relationship with his little sister, whom he loves very much, as “She wouldn’t answer me [Holden].” (207). His academics were ruined by his disorder as he had been “kicked out of” Elkton and Wooton prep schools, was failing four out of five subjects and is about to be expelled from Pencey prep school. His mind and thoughts are always on his worrying about adulthood and his hatred of phonies and trying not to become one and he never focuses on his education. Holden’s disorder has ruined many friendships and some of his chances at future careers.

Holden, throughout the course of the book has displayed many of the signs of post traumatic stress disorder and direly needs medical and physiological attention. If he does not get the attention he needs, his disorder could cause him to commit suicide to try to escape from his nightmarish reality. In order to be cured the proper treatments should be applied. The best option for him is to undergo eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) which itself is a type of “talk therapy” which is found to be most effective by medical studies. It is best for him to put him into a physiological evaluation facility as he desperately needs the rest, relaxation and eventually healing that it will provide to him.

Marissa G 4 said...

Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar disorder’s cause is not understood well, some studies show that it runs in families. The disorder could also be caused by your environment and family situation. Symptoms of being bipolar are moods swings felling very energetic (mania) to feeling extremely sad (depression). A person that is bipolar can have a manic episode form sleep deprivation or substance abuse. A manic episode can cause a person to feel extremely happy or irritable, inflated self-esteem, not needing as much sleep as normally, be more active that usual, have difficulty concentrating because to many thoughts are going through there mind, easily distracted by sights and sounds, act impulsively and so reckless actions. Depression causes a person to feel sad, anxious, hopeless, and pessimistic, have slow thoughts or speech, difficulty concentrating, and changes in eating or sleeping pattens, having decreased interests, suicidal thoughts. There are three different types of bipolar disorder the first is bipolar l which is the classic form, causes recurrent episodes of mania and depression. Bipolar ll you experience the same symptoms on bipolar l but less severe mania and more episodes of depression. The last kind is rapid- cycling bipolar you experience at least four episodes of depression, mania within a 12 month period. Disorder that may occur with bipolar are obsessive-compulsive disorder and panic attacks or panic disorder.

In the novel The Cather in the Rye the protagonist Holden Caulfield shows symptoms of having bipolar disorder. Holden experiences many mania and depression episodes throughout the novel. Many times Holden would stay out all night and go from one place to another and never feel tired, he was rested after only a few hours of sleep which is a symptom of mania. Holden also goes from one thought to another in a matter of seconds without the two topics having any relation to one another, mania. Another symptom of mania is to act impulsively like go one shopping sprees, at the beginning of the novel he tells of how he has a large amount of money and then towards the end of the novel he had to borrow money from his sister Phoebe. Holden would also always offer to pay for someone’s drink, take cabs everywhere , and he donated money to the two nuns that he met. He makes impulsive decisions when he wants to run away with Sally and when she does not want to go he gets very angry and sad. Holden experiences mania he gets excited about topics and goes of on a frenzy, when Stradlater went out on a date with Jane the first time we heard about her Holden got so excited the he kept telling Stradlater that when they were younger she would put all her kings in the back row and not more them, when they would play checkers. This is useless information for Stradlater but Holden still keeps telling him about it. Holden also experiences many episodes of depression. He is always saying that something made him so depressed that he wanted to kill himself. Suicide is a major symptom of depression in bipolar disorder. When something good happens to someone else or Holden sees someone having a good time and if he is by himself he gets very depressed. Holden showing symptoms of being bipolar has an effect on how he lives and how other around him see him. Others see Holden as depressed and there was even question of him being crazy. Being bipolar has also played a part in Holden’s personality he does not get the same amount of enjoyment that others would doing the same thing. Holden does not think or act like others do because he can go form really excited about something to having suicidal thoughts.

After completing a psychological of Holden Caulfield, it is determined that he does in fact have bipolar disorder therefore, he should go through the normal treatment for bipolar disorder, we will see how he reacts and take it form there. Sadly there is no cure for bipolar disorder but there is treatment. It can be effectively treated with a combination of mediation and counseling. The first treatment happens when a person has there first manic episode. Ongoing treatment are mood stabilizers which are used throughout treatment. Treatment can take many months for the patient to feel and be able to function normally. Another medication used in treatment is antidepressants but they can only be used for short periods of time because they can trigger a manic episode, they also have to be combined with mood stabilizers. A different option is electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), which is brief electrical stimulations to the brain that produces a short seizure that is believed to balance brain chemicals. To choose the right treatment for you, there would have to be much thought like what you life style allows you to do and the side effects should be a factor in your decition.

Steven E. 4 said...

Clinical Depression is a common mood disorder in which a person's enjoyment of life and ability to function socially and in day-to-day matters is disrupted by intense sadness, melancholia, numbness, or despair. Clinical depression affects about 7–18% of the population on at least one occasion in their lives, before the age of 40. There's no simple explanation why people experience depression, it can anyone at any age. Some people become depressed after a major life change—the death of a loved one, a divorce, the loss of a job or a move. Even seemingly happy events, such as becoming a parent or getting married, can trigger depression. I believe that Holden has this disorder and displays it when discussing his brother Allie and when it mentions his schoolwork.
Holden first displays this disorder in the beginning of the book when he is talking about his brother Allie. He explained that Allie “got leukemia and died”(38), which devastated his family. Holden got so depressed that “ they were going to have [him] psychoanalyzed”(38) because he overreacted and “broke all the windows in the garage”(39). This is one of the reasons why people become depressed (death of a loved one) and is a symptom of it (intense sadness).
Another time when Holden displays this disorder is when he is in school. He gets kicked out of most of the schools he goes to, the last one being Pencey, which “is about the fourth [he’s] gone to”(9). Even when he goes to school though, he doesn’t do well. When he said he was taking five classes, Mr. Spencer asked “how many [is he] failing in”(10), and Holden replied “four”(10). Holden seems like he was bored in school and just didn’t care. This shows that Holden has trouble functioning socially and in day-to-day matters, a sign of Clinical Depression.
Having Clinical Depression makes Holden behave a little more strangely than most people. It makes Holden be sad and depressed most of the time throughout the book, for example when he is talking about his brother Allie (38) and when he is talking to Mr. Spencer (10) he acts like he is depressed and wants to be doing something else. The only time Holden seems happy is at the end of the book when he is watching Phoebe on the carrousel. Holden “felt so damn happy all of a sudden”, (213) as he watched “Phoebe [keep] going around and around”(213). That’s the only time Holden is happy in the book. It affects other people by making Holden not have many friends. He has a couple but he thinks most of the people in the world are “phony”. Holden then judges people before he even knows them.
After completing a psychological evaluation of Holden Caulfield, it is determined that Holden has Clinical Depression, therefore, he should use one of the treatments for depression. One treatment is Talk Therapy. Therapy typically means that you spend about an hour a week talking with a mental health professional. Treatment can continue for several weeks or up to 1 to 2 years. Another treatment is Lifestyle Changes; your physician may recommend specific lifestyle changes, which may include exercise. Also, reach out to friends and family for support and try to find more social opportunities and activities in which you can participate. Finally there is a type of medication called Cymbalta. Over 5 million patients have been prescribed Cymbalta for any indication.

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Andy T. 4 said...

What can Holden Caufield be suffering from? After some research, my conclusions have lead me to think that Holden Caulfied is suffering from clinical depression. Clinical depression is a common mood disorder in psychology and psychiatry where a person’s enjoyment of life is disturbed by an intense sadness of some sort, melancholy, numbness, or despair. Signs of clinical depression is being severely depressed for weeks, intense feeling of guilt, loneliness, trouble concentrating, recurrent thoughts of death, etc.
Holden Caufield is currently diagnosed with clinical depression. There are many causes for Holden’s depression. He has suffered from many horrible things when he was young. When he was young, his brother Allie “got leukemia and died” (38) which he never really got over. When he “was only thirteen,”(38) after the death of Allie, Holden was “psychoanalyzed and all” because he “broke all the windows in the garage.”(39) Being psychoanalyzed at an early age such as thirteen shows us signs of his trouble which could lead to bigger things such as clinical depression later on in his life. Allie’s death is something that Holden could never let go of. He is so attached to him that he starts seeing images of Allie. Holden says to him, “Allie, don’t let me disappear.”(198) while he is crossing the street because sometimes he thinks Allie is still there with him. This is a recurrence of his death thoughts.
Holden is lonely at times but seeks to be with people. But when he gets enough of them, he gets bored and starts pushing them away. Holden doesn’t communicate with others much but when he does, he goes over the line. When talking to Sally Hayes, he asked he if she wanted “to get the hell out of here”(132) which he meant running away. When Sally turned Holden down, he “was getting depressed as hell again.”(133) Holden’s depression and loneliness has been going on for quite a while now. Holden worries too much about things which leads to his depression for several weeks that indicates Holden’s severe problem of clinical depression.
After completing a psychological evaluation of Holden Caufield, it is determined that he is diagnosed with clinical depression. Therefore, he should seek medication and psychotherapy. Clinical depression is not something to be taken lightly and should be treated right away. If not the consequences later on would be very severe. Holden’s depression could lead him to negative thinking and sometimes self abuse. If the case gets worse, it could even lead to Holden attempting or even completing suicide. That is why I recommend that this case of clinical depression be treated now which will hopefully make Holden better and he can live a healthy life.

Anonymous said...

Although it is hard to distinguish, Borderline Personality Disorder can easily become a detriment to any body's life. Sufferers experience anxiety, involuntary impulses, and instability. Unfortunately, failures later in life will result despite the magnitude of the disorder. Some symptoms can even be as severe as suicide, or suicidal behaviors. There are also feelings of emptiness, feeling invisible, and not having any self esteem. This suffering and misfortune, however, is not curable. The amount of symptoms obtained by Holden Caulfield concludes that he is diagnosed with Borderline Personality Disorder.

Patients who suffer from this disorder are desperate to escape isolation and seclusion. The first thing Holden Caulfield does when he arrives in New York city was call somebody on the phone. Throughout the book The Catcher In The Rye whenever Holden found himself alone he would pick up the phone and call someone in order to cease his loneliness. Holden would "look through [his] address book to see who the hell might be available for the evening" (Salinger 136). He settled on calling Carl Luce, someone he did not even like. Although he disliked Carl, nothing could compare to being alone. His compulsive need to be around people is evidence that he has BPD. During his stay in New York he encounters a dispute with a prostitute in his hotel room. After the conflict, Holden said "what [he] really felt like, though, was committing suicide. [He] felt like jumping out of the window" (Salinger 104). His desire to commit suicide corresponds with patients of BPD because they will usually experience suicidal behaviors, whether it is self infliction or just thoughts and imaginations. Lack of education is another symptom of BPD which explains why Holden has flunked out of four different schools. Borderline Personality Disorder is not common but Holden is cascading with symptoms of this affliction.

Borderline Personality Disorder is commonly derived from past traumatic experiences and heredity. When Holden Caulfield was merely a child, his brother Allie was another victim of a cancerous epidemic and he lost. Holden "slept in the garage the night he died, and [he] broke all the goddam windows with [his] fist, just for hell of it" (Salinger 39). This pivotal moment in his life damaged him emotionally. This premature farewell developed the foundation of this disorder because of all the separation he felt as a result of it. This disorder is also genetic, and more likely to occur if a family member has a mental condition as well. Holden's mother was the brunt of any impact caused by Allie's death. She is "touchy as hell" (Salinger 1), and any despair she felt would only add to Holden's feelings. Like a typical mom, she went into depression when her son died. The failure she felt, and the melancholy clouding his environment stimulated Holden. The environment is one of the main factors that effects who you are, and because his mother could not get over Allie's death, it influenced Holden to feel the same way. Holden's inability to let go is the reason for his suffering.

This disorder affects a person mentally and physically. Patients who are diagnosed with BPD behave and think a different way. As a result, patients can only see people as either good or bad, and it changes frequently due to arbitrary reasons. One day Holden could be Stradlater's biggest fan and the next day he would hate everything about him. The way Holden sees people also affects the way he acts in a relationship. When Holden met Sally Hayes, a past friend, he expected to reconcile with her and leave feeling like it was one of the best days of his life. However, because of his disorder, he in incapable of keeping relationships. He tells her that she is a "royal pain the ass" (Salinger 133) and to make matters worse he laughed off the entire situation. "Features of borderline personality disorder include aggressive behavior, difficulty controlling emotions and impulses, problems with unstable and intense relationships." ( Other symptoms are random impulses, and irrational thinking. Holden's irrational thinking influenced him to leave Pencey, it influenced him to wander around New York, to spend all his money, to order a prostitute, and to call his friends. During the same meeting with Sally Hayes he blurts out his proposition about driving around Massachusetts and Vermont. "[H]eres my idea," Holden says, "how would you like to get the hell out of here ... What we could do is, tomorrow morning we could drive around up to Massachusetts and Vermont, and all around there, see" (Salinger 132). It would be impossible to get anyone you hardly knew to agree with that idea, but that did not stop Holden because he could not control his impulses.

After completing a psychological evaluation of Holden Caulfield, it is determined that he is diagnosed with Borderline Personality Disorder therefore, he should schedule professional help immediately. Despite the fact that there is no cure, extensive counseling and medicine can improve BPD. Recovery can take years, and may be arduous to hurdle through, but long-term counseling is the only efficient treatment.

Jessica F 2 said...

Clinical Depression is a state of intense sadness, melancholia or despair that has advanced to the point of being disruptive to an individual’s social functioning and/or activities of daily living. Clinical Depression is not the same as feeling sad and saying “I’m so depressed”. It is much more deep then that. Some of the causes of clinical depression could be early experiences, such as a death in the family, and life experiences, such as getting kicked out of school. Sometimes you don’t even have to have something go wrong. A person could have something wonderful happen to them and still have clinical depression. It is a common problem with women. Usually after having a baby, two out of a thousand women end up with clinical depression. Yes, it isn’t all that much but someone would never think something similar to, having a baby would make a person depressed. Some symptoms of having clinical depression are having periods of sobbing, fear of “going mad”, and a decrease in self-esteem. I believe that Holden shows all these signs and has all these causes that I have mentioned.
Everyone knows Holden carries around and wears his “red hunting hat a lot”. When Holden feels uncomfortable or embarrassed he usually “pulled the old peak of [his] hunting hat around to the front” (21) to hide his face from the world. This shows a sign of decrease in self-esteem. Holden has lost his brother Allie in The Catcher in the Rye. Allie is Holden’s favorite person besides Phoebe, his younger sister. The loss of his brother Allie could have helped cause his medical condition of clinical depression. Holden also switches from being happy one minute to being sad another. When Holden is thinking about leaving Pencey he says how be feels “so lonesome all of a sudden” (48) out of no where. Throughout the book, Holden always calls himself a “mad man”. Everything he does, he refers to himself as mad and one of the big symptoms of clinical depression is thinking about being crazy or going mad. And finally, in the scene where Holden is hiding in Phoebe’s room he “started to cry” (179) out of no where with no reasoning at all.
After looking at all the signs that Holden is showing, and after carefully looking at all the causes, I have come to the conclusion that Holden Caulfield has Clinical Depression. It would be good for Holden to look into treating his condition or it can only get worse. He could look into some therapy, or some medication. I’m sure in the mental institution that Holden is in he is getting both therapy and medication which are the best solutions to his problems.

evelyn L 2 said...

In the novel The Catcher in the Rye by , Holden Caulfield is suffering from Borderline Personality Disorder. Borderline Personality Disorder is the disturbance suffered by those with “a wide-ranging” impact on the “psychosocial facets” of life. Including the ability to hold down a job and relationships at “work, home, and social settings“. Holden suffers from hiding who he really is when it comes to introducing himself, and is always lonesome, with or without people.

Symptoms of having Borderline Personality Disorder is Paranoid ideas, Relationship instability, Impulsive behavior, and identity disturbance. In the story Holden experiences all of these symptoms with family friends and people he might have just met. Holden is paranoid with what goes on around him many times in the novel. When Ackley is first introduced to us, he is walking around Holden’s room touching and misplacing everything. Holden gets aggravated and paranoid easily and wants “Ackley kid”(pg.21) to “s[it] down or something”(pg.21). Holden’s relationship with Sally Hayes was unstable even if they were just friends. Holden goes from “Swell to see you”(pg.124) to “sort of hat[ing] old Sally”(pg.128). Holden can never be sure about how he feels toward another person even if he has known them forever, like Sally Hayes, or just met them for the first time. When Holden’s brother Allie died he became very impulsive. Holden punched and “broke all the windows in the garage just for the hell of it”(pg.39) and would have kept going. He “slept in the garage the night he died”(pg.39). Allie’s death had a big impact on Holden, he soon started covering his identity for who he really was. Throughout the novel (with a few exceptions) he gives a phony name or “should’ve given a phony name”(pg.65).When meeting Ernest Morrow’s mother on the train, Holden told her his real name was “Rudolph Schmidt”(pg.54) because “he didn’t feel like giving her [his] whole like story”(pg.54-55).

Having this phenomena effects Holden’s entire life. He won’t be able to have a relationship that’s works well with anyone. Holden may have issues with the police or something if he becomes impulsive over small things and overreact. Along with hiding who he really is. If he can’t say to himself and be comfortable with who he is, then I don’t think no one will. His life will turn out a mess. Not only will it effect his life but the way he acts toward his family and friends. He may be to impulsive or might not be able to stay friends with them for long and be alone.

After analyzing Holden and signs for BPD, it makes sense to conclude that Holden suffers from Borderline Personality Disorder. Treatments include Dialectical behavior therapy, Focused therapy , Schema-focused therapy Psychotherapy, and hospitalization. Psychotherapy would teach Holden how to handle emotions, relationships with others. He could also use medications like antidepressants to change his mood toward things and improve his point of view on people. Recovery could take a lot of time, but in the end it should be worth it. Holden should be able to live his life in peace.

Thanh N. 4 said...

Every person develops some type of trauma that could affect them. It could be a person having a social issue from school turning into a homicidal killer. There are many factors that could create such a disorder, such as the post traumatic stress disorder. (PTSD) In The Catcher in the Rye, by J.D. Salinger, Holden starts to suffer from it. Since Allie’s death, his little brother, Holden has shown signs of the disorder.
PTSD is one of the few mental disorders that can be triggered from a disturbing event. One of the ways that could start it could be from depression. A lot of the patients have traumatic events like a car accident, sexual assault, or domestic violence. There are many steps that show signs of the disorder. Many of the steps start with pre-existing anxiety and depression disorders or previous traumatic events. In order to find out if the victim is suffering from it, there are signs of fear, helplessness, or horror. There are other symptoms such as insomnia, or intrusions. The person could possibly have daytime flashbacks or nightmares. In order to control it, there are different methods in controlling the disorder so it does not get worse. The person could do Art therapy, when they draw out all their feelings and the things that have been kept inside of them. There is also training in social skills. By using this method, it could help the person express their feelings more and have an appropriate emotion in a conversation.
With many things going on in Holden’s life, he starts to feel depressed. His brother Allie has died, his mom is loony, and he just got kicked out of school again. Everywhere he goes, he never feels like it is the right place to stay so he moves to a different area. Once there are no people in area, he would want to get “the hell out of the place” (Salinger 80) because there is nothing to do. Holden is always trying to find the need of accompany but he never finds it. He is trying to train his social skills, but he always takes “[his] old hunting hat out of [his] pocket while [he] walked” (Salinger 122). With all the problems going through his life, like Allie’s death, he never seems to have the time to socialize with the people around him. Once he does start talking, they never stick around to stay longer. His life traumas from, his brother’s death to loneliness causes him to have PTSD. After Allie died, Holden “broke all the goddamn windows with [his] fist, just for the hell of it” (Salinger 39). Once a person starts to create these types of angers, they tend to get serious. Holden’s tantrum wasn’t a healthy action because most people would not break windows. His actions caused him to break his fingers and not be able to make a fist anymore. What was worse was “that [he doesn’t] care much” (Salinger 39). One of the signs Holden shows is depression, which is one of the symptoms. Only once in a while you would see him smile, but most of the time he’s depressed. Since Holden is depressed and lonely all the time, it affects the people around him. For example, his mother is already stressing about Allie’s death, but he goes off and breaks all of his fingers. His disorder causes his family to have disorders too. Other than that, when he is around Phoebe, there is never a time he will be laughing. Holden’s depression is always bringing down the people around him. His disorder is a cause for all people’s stress. Even his little sister is getting stress from worrying about him.
Holden’s disorder is caused from all his bad experiences. From his brother’s death to his mother’s great depression, to even getting out of school. These actions or events are always putting him down. With so many things going on in his life, it causes him to get into deep depression and have traumas affecting the way he lives now. With these symptoms, Holden has a disorder called Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) In order to cure him; he must be treated with increasing his social skills and being able to express himself. Holden is taking in too much depression and traumas that could affect his social life and the people around him.

Mat M. 4 said...

Holden Caulfield from the novel The Catcher in the Rye, is one of many who suffer from clinical depression. The disease, clinical depression, is common among people of all ages, however with the advances in technology in this modern era, there is no simple reason for why people suffer from depression. Some theories are that a major change in someone’s life can trigger episodes of depression as well as death in the family, major life events, or stressful conflicts. It is most common that sudden feelings of sadness or loneliness are associated with depression, yet others could be bad school performance or loss of interest of one’s common activities. Holden should not be worried because for depression there are treatments to help it.

Holden frequently displayed symptoms of loss of interest associated with his depression. When Holden is on the night train on its way to New York he explains “it was different” (pg. 53) and he just didn’t feel like reading. “[He] just sort of sat there and not did anything. All [he] did was take out [his] red hunting hat and put it in [his] pocket” (pg.53). The red hunting hat is a remedy for Holden to deal with the depression on his own. This supports the fact that Holden is indeed suffering from depression and even interferes with what he likes to do most.

Another occurrence of Holden displaying depression is when he saying that he has left places and schools but he never actually knew he was leaving them. But he does not care if “if it's a sad good-by or a bad good-by” (pg. 4). Yet for Holden, when he leaves somewhere he wants to know he is leaving it and according to him “If you don't, you feel even worse” (pg. 4). Moving place to place has a profound effect on Holden. Leaving places depresses Holden because it is the way he leaves them and he wants to be aware of it.

After Holden’s psychological evaluation, he is in fact suffering from mild clinical depression therefore I am recommending that he meets with a psychiatrist for further evaluation and for possible future episode’s of depression. There a numerous explanations for his depression but the tragic death of his young brother Allie, is the direct cause of his depression. Family deaths are very common depression triggers and for Holden to blame himself is defiantly going to affect him. However, with proper treatment Holden can continue with a depression-free life.

Aaron G 2 said...

The Catcher in the Rye Psychology

The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger creates a character named Holden that goes through a traumatic event in losing his brother. This traumatic event could have caused PTSD (Post traumatic stress disorder). This disorder has the symptoms of general restlessness, insomnia, aggressiveness, depression, dissociation, emotional detachment, and nightmares. The causes of PTSD could be a traumatic expierience in their life such as a serious accident.
Holden losing his brother Allie to death is a case of trauma. PTSD can be triggered by a serious accident, “he got leukemia and died when we were up in Maine”(38), which happens to be Allie dying. Holdens conditions include some of the symptoms of PTSD. Holden does have general restlessnes and could have insomnia since, “Why aint ya home in bed? Im not tired”(83) could suggest insomnia. Depression could be a nother symptom and as Holden is always talking about depression,”and the more I thought about it, the more depressed I got” (195),could enhance the case of him having PTSD. Holden has almost multiple personalities. Once in a while he will go on a lying tangent yet other times he is extremely honest, which could be an example of dissociation. Holden does have the tendancy of the sympton of aviodance by avoiding people yet it isn’t a strong avoidance. This disorder can be helped or fixed with phycology and/or medication/s.
This disorder almost creates the character and the person of Holden. Holden losing his brother at a young age causes him to be very careful on who and what he loves. Holden only really likes one girl as more than a friend in almost his whole life. He also is very protective of his other sybling because he lost one before. When Pheobe is on the horse “I was sort of afraid she’d fall off the goddam horse”(211) shows his caring and regards for his sister. This disorder affects everyone Holden has ever or will talk to in his life. Since the traumatic event makes him as he is, anyone that meets him gets the REAL Holden and is affected by his personality.
Holden was currently going to pshycology when he was telling his story in The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger which was helping his disorder. There was no way to find out if Holden soon became mentally stable, yet he was getting some treatment.

Elaine T 4 said...

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder or PTSD is the term used for people who have serious emotional reactions due to psychological trauma. The trauma usually deals with life threatening situations where the person can’t cope or deal with the event.; such as death or a diagnosis of a serious disease. Many cases of PTSD have been linked with cancer patients and family members. Symptoms of PTSD are nightmares, flashbacks, emotional detachment, insomnia, avoidance of reminders, loss of appetite, lack of concentration and focus, clinical depression and anxiety. The most common symptoms of PTSD are avoidance of the world, “dissociation,” startled reactions, and reoccurring flashbacks of the traumatic event. Those that do suffer from PTSD are categorized by how long these emotion reactions have occurred.

The main character, Holden Caulfield, in The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger, displays many of the symptoms for PTSD and maybe suffering from “delayed onset PTSD” because his symptoms have lasted years. Holden’s symptoms include flashbacks of his dead brother Allie, isolation and emotional detachment. Holden has many flashbacks of his brother who died of leukemia. He remembers the time when he was “playing golf and when [he] turned around, [he’d] see Allie outside the fence.” (38) and also remembers Allie’s baseball mitt with all the poetry written over the fingers. Although his brother died many years ago, Holden keeps remembering about his brother and has a hard time coping with his death because he still “talks to Allie” (98) when he is miserable and lonely.

Another symptom that Holden displays is isolation. During the last football game at school, the Pencey students were all attending the game while Holden “[stood] on top of Thompsen Hill” (2) all alone. Although he wanted to say goodbye to them, he isolated himself instead. Also, Holden leaves Pencey without telling anyone and goes to New York alone. He yearns for company and friendship yet whenever someone gets close to him, like Sally Hayes, he isolates himself and hides behind his rude words.

Another symptom of PTSD is emotional detachment; trying to ignore or avoid all emotions and people. Holden has a broken relationship with his parents and “[hasn‘t] communicated with them” (9) for quite some time. Moreover, he knows his mother is still sad over his brother’s death but he doesn’t do anything to ease her pain. Not only does Holden choose to neglect his mother’s feelings, he also loses focus when others are speaking. When Sally was “[raving] about the Lunts” (127) Holden wasn’t paying attention and just ignored her. These are some examples of emotional detachment.

After psychoanalyzing Holden Caulfield, it is determined that he has PTSD. Holden displays many symptoms of PTSD and seems to have been suffering PTSD for many years. The most common treatments for PTSD are the “Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing” method and psychotherapy along with antidepressants like Prozac or Remeron. The “Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing” method is when patients go back to the traumatic event through eye movements and sounds to recreate the event and slowly cope and process what had happened. The psychotherapy and antidepressants deal with group or individual sessions with a therapist and the patient would talk about the event and such and slowly learn to cope as well. Holden should see a therapist as quick as possible and rid himself of PTSD because it is very unhealthy to dwell in the past and to exclude oneself from emotions and people.

Jess L 2 said...

Borderline Personality Disorder

After some research, my not-so-professional diagnosis of Holden Caufield is that he has Borderline Personality Disorder. One of the main signs of this disorder is a “disturbance in the individual’s sense of self.” Also, the subject can find it hard to hold down any sort of relationship in any kind of setting. Thoughts and attempts at suicide and nearly constant mood swings are also signs. Holden Caufield clearly exhibits these and more of the symptoms of Borderline Personality Disorder.

One of the main symptoms Holden seems to show is also the major theme in the book, which is, as previously mentioned, difficulty with his sense of self. Throughout the book, Holden is struggling with individualism and finding his place in the world. He is always criticizing the phonies and never wants to be like them, and he does anything to be different, like wearing his ridiculous hunting hat. Another issue he has is with his maturity. He is quite young, but already is growing gray hair. This greatly contrasts with his personality, because he tries so hard to maintain the childhood qualities of innocence and purity. He believes that once you grow up, you become a phony and have to blend in with society.

This is one of the reasons why he shows another one of the symptoms, which is difficulty holding down relationships. He never gets too close to anyone, even people he considers his friend. Take Ackley, for example. He spends quite a bit of time with Ackley, and even hangs out with him and goes to the movies, but he still keeps saying that he hates him and points out his flaws. Also, he never seems to have a stable relationship with anyone. One of the other symptoms is if the person has "a pattern of difficult relationships caused by alternating between extremes of intense admiration and hatred of others," which is clear in Holden, when, for example, he randomly asked Sally Hayes to move out of state with him and get married, then as soon as he gets that thought out into the open, he says that he really kind of hated her. Also, the girl Jane Gallagher he used to know is always on his mind, and every time he wants to call her and talk with her or hang out, he changes his mind. Also, he hates conversation and really tries to avoid talking to people sometimes. He even fantasizes one day about being a mute so that he’d never have to talk to anyone. He also shows many of the other symptoms, like suicidal gestures, impulsiveness, anxiety, feelings of emptiness, and constant anger, but there are too many examples of these instances to count.

I think that Holden has this disorder because of the issues with his childhood. His little brother Allie "got leukemia and died," (Salinger, 38) which is definitely one of the defining factors of who he is today. He just can't seem to let it go, and doesn't want to grow up. He thinks that if he grows up, he will forget about Allie and become a phony just like every other adult in the world, in his opinion. This leads to his issues with identity, because he struggles to find who he is without accepting his maturity. Also, Allie was one of the only people he ever got close to, and now he is gone, so I think he has trouble forming relationships with people because he doesn't want to suffer another emotional meltdown because of a loss.

After this analysis, it is safe to say that Holden Caulfield has Borderline Personality Disorder. Therefore, he should start trying to treat it and improve his life. There are quite a few ways to do this. One of the things he should do is take care of his physical and mental health, by getting enough sleep, exercise, and eating a healthy diet. Also, it would help to start trying to build relationships and bonds with family members, coworkers, friends, etc. Another method would be to try support groups with other people who have the same problem, because maybe then he won't feel alone in his struggle.

Jillian D 2 said...

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder affects about 7.7 million people between the ages of 18 and 35. Some Veterans also are affected by PTSD. Post-Traumatic Stress disorder is caused by a nearly fatal accident, being raped, medical issues, assault, or losing a loved one. People who have PTSD and are not diagnosed by a doctor can tell by having symptoms like avoidance, hyperarousal, intrusion, and dissociation. When a person has hyperarousal they are generally very jumpy and are very nervous. Intrusion is when a person has nightmare and flashbacks of the event. A person with these two symptoms, have another symptom of avoidance. Which the person isolates themselves from other people around them. People having Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder have a hard time coping with their everyday life and they can sometimes pull apart families.
Holden Caulfield lost his younger brother, Allie. Allie was very into the arts. He loved to read and write poetry. Holden also loves to write. He is a very good English student. Holden being the older brother should be the one that Allie looked up to, but it seemed that Holden looked up to Allie more. He looked up to the fact that Allie had “very red hair”(38) and that he knew where Allie was ever time he did something. With the tragic news of Allie’s death, Holden “slept in the garage the night he died” and “broke all the goddamn windows with [his] fist.”(39). It is very clear that Holden didn’t know how to deal with a death like this and it caused him to not be able to “make a real fist anymore”(39), it also makes him think about things that he sees in everyday life that relate to Allie.
Holden doesn’t like having sex. He starts to “feel pretty sexy and all, but [he] was a little nervous..”(92) at the time. Holden might not like to have sex because of something that might have happened as a little kid. Something like “Mr. Antolini’s hand.”(191) that was “petting [him] or patting [him] on the goddamn head.”(192) all while he was sleeping on his couch. That is a good reason to why Holden doesn’t like sex because he was put into that awkward position with someone that could have raped him. That is a one leading cause for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. People who are raped blame themselves and makes them even worse with their disorder.
After completing an evaluation of Holden Caulfield, it is determined that Holden clearly has Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and he should seek help. He should find a place that has cognitive therapy. With this type of therapy people learn to deal with the thoughts of the trauma. Also with this type of therapy, it shows them that they couldn’t do anything else about the situation. Holden might also want to look into exposure therapy. This allows him to talk about the trauma that has occurred and lets him look at it in a new way.

sandy j 2 said...

My chosen psychological personality disorder is (BPD) Border personality disorder. BPD is an illness characterized by instability in moods, behavior, interpersonal relationships and self-image; it also disrupts one’s self-identity. Some symptoms can be bursts of anger that last several hours or even a day. People with this disease can feel unworthy and isolated. They have social problems towards their family, friends and other loved ones. Their fear of feeling abandoned relates to someone who’s absent that they felt connected with which leaves them feeling lost and worthless. They also feel like nobody understands them so they try extremely hard to avoid being alone. BPD can be cured through treatments.

Holden has BPD because Holden has problems with the people around him. (p37) “They both laughed like hyenas at stuff that wasn’t even funny. I didn’t even enjoy sitting next to them in the movies.” Holden doesn’t want to be alone at Pencey with no friends so he feels a little obliged to hang out with someone. Ackley is not his favorite person in the world, neither is Brossard, but he doesn’t want to be alone. Holden also gets angry and he acts on his anger ample times in the book. (p43) “All I know is I got up from the bed, like I was going to the can or something, and then I tried to sock him, with all my might, right smack in the toothbrush”. Holden was angry because he knew how Stradlater was and he was afraid what he had done to Jane. She meant something to him and he thought she was too good to be going out with Stradlater. What set him off even more is that Stradlater didn’t want to tell him what happened on the date. He assumed the worst and acted out without thinking.

Holden had a little brother who died at 10 years old and that has effects in his life. (p39) “I slept in the garage the night he died, and I broke all the god dam windows with my fist, just for the hell of it. I even tried to break all the windows of the station wager we had this summer…” Holden had a relationship with Allie and he admired him because he was intelligent and different in a good way. He couldn’t deal with him not being here so he tried to deal with it his own way. Allie was an inspiration to him to be better and do better at school, but since he’s gone he doesn’t have to do it now. One of BPD’s symptoms is feeling lost and Holden feels that way at times in the book. (p60) ‘You know those ducks in that lagoon right near Central park south? By any chance, do you happen to know where they go, the ducks, when it gets all frozen over?” The ducks is a symbol that Holden is searching for a way. He’s searching for himself and where he wants to end up in life. He wonders where the ducks go because he doesn’t know where he’s going either and he wants to find his way.

Holden doesn’t feel very smart and outgoing compared to his siblings. Each one of them has something going for them but Holden doesn’t. Holden has gray hair which old people have but he has it and he acts very immature for his age. It hurts Holden that he’s not special or smart. So he’s trying to find his place, where he belongs. (p77) “I heard my mother come in the room”. Holden feels abandoned by his mother because she always has something to do. He doesn’t have a relationship with her and he never did. She neglects him and that’s one of the reasons why he struggles with life.

An effect that BPD has on Holden is that if he alienates himself from his friends and family, he’ll end up alone. He might also go completely insane if he’s so obsessed with the problems of the world, like adults being phony. He will always be depressed if he thinks about what he looks like too much because everyone is different. He should make himself belong and not be a recluse. One very important effect is death because if he keeps getting angry, he might do something and kill himself. The effect on his family and friends is that they can disown him. They’re still going to love him, but they’re not going to agree with his beliefs or his ways. He’ll end up alone and never find himself, because in order to find yourself, you have to be around people who know you.

Herman T 2 said...

Herman Tse
Mr. Walsh
English 10 Honors
14 October 2007
Catcher in the Rye: Psychology Assignment
Bipolar Disorder is like 2 poles. One is happy and other sad. Bipolar disorder is the swing of one mood to another, usually from mania to depression. Mania is a mood when you feel invincible and on top of the world, in other words you are really happy. Depression is a low mood or emotional state where there is a loss of pleasure. Being bipolar means that the patient changes from one pole to another drastically. Most changes occur due to little events that have a huge impact. When the trigger is activated, the patient tends to flip moods.
People that are bipolar often have a consistency to have suicidal thoughts. In the scene after Old Maurice leaves, Holden states what he “really felt like, though, was committing suicide.(Salinger 104) Then Holden repeats it again, “I felt like jumping out the window.”(Salinger 104) Holden was depressed in this scene, therefore he feels the need to commit suicide. To show that Holden is bipolar in a scene such as this, Holden would’ve needed to change moods instantaneously from depression to mania. However this doesn’t prove that Holden isn’t bipolar, but it does prove that he is somewhat not bipolar.
In all of the scenes of the book, Holden Caulfield has never once proven himself to be bipolar. A patient with bipolar disorder changes from happy to sad, but Holden, mainly, changes from anger to depression. Anger is not a factor of a bipolar patient. It is hard to say that Holden is bipolar, but there are many arguments that Holden is bipolar because he does have mood swings, but not many do understand the symptoms of being bipolar. Holden was hysterical because he wanted to marry Sally Hayes and go off to live with her. Holden was drunk to show that he was under the influence of alcohol so he wasn’t in a stable emotion, which could’ve caused the mood swings.
After completing a psychological evaluation of Holden Caulfield, it is determined that Holden Caulfield does not have Bipolar Disorder therefore, he needs to seek for a different evaluation such as Borderline Personality Disorder.

Cristina V 2 said...

Post traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is one of the few mental disorders that are caused by a previous event. It is to my knowledge that Holden Caulfield has encountered some traumatic experiences. Some symptoms of PTSD include, fear, anxiety, guilt, and anger. One may also experience flashbacks or nightmares. About 1 in 5 adult Americans will experience at least 3 traumatic experiences in their lifetime. About 5% of Americans will develop Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.
People who suffer from PTSD frequently relive the traumatic event. Holden often relives the night his brother Allie died, “[Holden] slept in the garage the night he [Allie] died, and I broke all the goddamn windows with my fist, just for the hell of it. I even tried to break all the windows in the station wagon we had that summer, but my hand was already broken and everything by that time, and I couldn’t do it” (39). Also, the fact that Holden broke all of the windows in the garage the night Allie died concludes that Holden experiences anger very easily. Holden also experiences some cases of anxiety. When he was in the park he “was still shivering like a bastard, and the back of my hair, even though I had my hunting hat on , was sort of full of little hunks of ice. That worried me. I thought probably I’d get pneumonia and die” (154) He began to think he was going to die of pneumonia because he was cold. He also began to think of who would come to his funeral and what they would say about him.
Guilt is also one of the symptoms of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. Holden bought his sister, Phoebe a record that he thought she might enjoy. “Then something terrible happened just as I got in the park. I dropped old Phoebe’s record. It broke into about fifty pieces. It was in a big envelope and all, but it broke anyway. I damn near cried; it made me feel so terrible” (154). Because he felt so guilty about breaking Phoebe’s record, this could add to the disorder.
“The person may avoid people, places, thoughts or situations that may remind him or her of the trauma. This can lead to feelings of detachment and isolation from family and friends, as well as loss of interest in activities that the person once enjoyed.” Holden always said he was going to “stop in a phone booth and give old Jane Gallagher a buzz before I started bumming my way west. But I wasn’t in the mood” (202). He never seemed to be “in the mood” he always thought of some type of excuse as to why he did not call or talk to Jane Gallagher. I’ve come to the conclusion that the reason as to why Holden is avoiding Jane is because “She was the only one, outside my family, that I ever showed Allie’s baseball mitt to, with all the poems written on it” (77). He felt that if he talked to Jane, it would bring back all of his memories of Allie.
After completing a psychological evaluation of Holden Caulfield, it is determined that he suffers from Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and thee patient should seek professional help from a psychologist. Also talking about the event and being able to accept the facts should also be of some help.

casey w. 4 said...

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder is when a person emotionally reacts to an accident that occurred in the past for an ongoing amount of time. People with this issue could also be lead into other disorders such as clinical depression or addictions to many different things. If suffering from Posttraumatic Stress Disorder there are many possible symptoms a person can hold. It is common with this disorder to have night mares, flashbacks, emotional detachment, anxiety, or even memory loss. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder is diagnosed by a mental health professional however unlike most disorders in order to have this a person must have went through something that they were afraid for their lives or safety or something that made them feel helplessness or some sort of horror.

Holden Caulfield also known as the protagonist of The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger is facing some sort of physiological disorder that has made him go relax in some psyche home. By reading this book and getting inside Holden’s head a common disorder known as Posttraumatic Stress has hit Holden mentally. It is known that to receive this disorder “the latter may involve someone’s actual death” ( Holden admired his younger brother Allie but unfortunately “[h]e’s dead now.” (pg. 38) Ever since Allies death Holden hasn’t been himself. One sign of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder is emotional detachment which Holden suffers from. Holden doesn’t like many things in life but “[he] likes Allie” (pg. 171) “When somebody’s dead, you don’t stop liking them” (pg 171) but Holden has trouble letting go of Allies death and this causes him not to want to venture out and live his life. Holden several times refers to how depressed he is he never stays in one place without getting “sad and lonesome” (pg.51) Holden is suffering from this incident in his passed and throughout the days and nights he is getting worse. Although Holden is not having memory loss or night mares it does not mean this disorder doesn’t suit him. This disorder is affecting him immensely because it has already caused him of ruining his high school life from moving to school to school. Some Posttraumatic Stress Disorder victims “have trouble with relationships” ( Holden can not hold a relationship or a friendship for that matter without getting annoyed by a person for example Sally Hayes and his companions Stadlater and Ackley. If Holden does not get help soon his life will crumple before he has time to fix it.

Holden’s disorder is indeed common and he has in fact gone through a tragedy in life that could set anyone back as fast as it did to Holden. Even though Holden was “make believ[ing] [he] was talking to [his] brother Allie” (pg.198) which shows his attachment to Allie that he can not let go does not mean he can not be cured. After further evaluation of Holden I believe it is necessary for him to seek out treatment with a physiologist as soon as possible. There is really no definite cure for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder but getting Holden into therapy will reduce symptoms and hopefully, although it is not guaranteed cancel out any signs of it so he can get back to his once normal lived life before the tragic death of his younger brother.

Jen-T 4 said...

The psychological phenomenon that I chose to research was bipolar disorder. Bipolar disorder is a “psychiatric condition defined as recurrent episodes of significant disturbance in mood”. Symptoms of bipolar disorder usually over during young adulthood. There are many symptoms of bipolar disorder that are first broken up into two different categories, mania and depression.
There are many signs of mania or a manic episode, some of them that Holden displays throughout the book are “grandiosity” and “racing thoughts”. Grandiosity is the feeling of all-powerful, invincible, and destined for greatness. Holden implies about being destined for greatness during one specific part of the book. He feels as if he “ha[s]to catch everybody if they start to go over the cliff” (173). Holden thinks that’s all he’d have to do “all day” (173) is “just be the catcher in the rye” (173). This quote signifies that he feels as if it is his hidden job to be the catcher in the rye and catch all the kids before they fell off the cliff of childhood. Grandiosity is not the only sign of a manic episode that Holden goes through during the book. Holden also experiences racing thoughts throughout the book. Racing thoughts are a flight of ideas or when you can’t keep up with your own ideas and thoughts. There is one significant moment when Holden is pictured clearly with racing thoughts. He is having dinner with Sally and he has an idea where “[he] could get a job somewhere with a brook and all” (132) then he decides that “[they] could get married” (132). Holden gets “excited as hell” (132) when he is talking to Sally. He goes from having a nice dinner to talking about running away and getting married with her. This situation clearly shows how Holden has these sudden episodes of mania. Grandiosity and racing thoughts are two of the many signs of mania that Holden expresses in this book.
Holden doesn’t only express signs of mania thought The Catcher in the Rye, he also displays signs of depression or a depressive episode. A symptom that he experiences throughout the story is a loss of interest or pleasure. This includes the “inability to experience pleasure [, that] nothing seems to interest you anymore, including former hobbies, social activities, and sex.” While on his little adventure in New York, Holden decides to buy a prostitute in a hotel he stays at. He gets excited and a little nervous when she comes hoping that “she’d be good-looking.” (93) Finally she arrives but Holden then changes his mind and “[doesn’t] feel very much like [himself]”. (96) He feels “more depressed than sexy” (96). This is a perfect example of “a loss of interest or pleasure” because Holden completely changes his emotions from when before she came in to when they were about to do something. Bipolar disorder also has certain things that may trigger a mood episode. One thing is a major life event such as a death in the family. Holden also experience this when his brother Allie dies “on July 18, 1946.” (38) This event affected Holden indefinitely because “[his parents] were going to have him psychoanalyzed”. (38-39). All this started happening when [he] broke all the windows in [his] garage” (39) after his brothers death. Allies death affected the whole family but mostly Holden because he idolized him.
Holden displays many to the symptoms that a person who suffers from bipolar disorder would display. With that being said, it is determined that Holden Caulfield does in fact have bipolar disorder. Bipolar disorder is usually treated with medications and/or therapy or counseling. The setting that we see at the beginning of the book and the end of the book, we find out, is at some hospital where Holden is seeing “this one psychoanalyst guy” (213).

Yeah i know sorry i have 638 words =[

Malik B. 4 said...

Clinical depression is a psychological diagnosis in which a person has a hard time engaging in everyday activity without feeling a deep sadness. This illness often results in poor social relationships because of the interference of their own misery. Death with in a family and rejection early on in life may result in clinical depression in years to follow if not dealt with correctly. A person with clinical depression may often think of suicide or death, feel a sense of emptiness, worthlessness, and awkward sleeping patterns. Treatment of clinical depression includes; medication, psychotherapy, and acupuncture.
Holden Caulfield of J.D. Salinger’s, The Catcher in the Rye fits many of the symptoms of clinical depression. Holden’s younger brother, Allie died which seems to have affected Holden greatly. Holden recalls, “ I slept in the garage the night [Allie] died, and I broke all the windows in the goddam windows with my fist, just for the hell of it.”. (39) Allie’s death was a traumatic experience for Holden, unfortunately the situation was not dealt with positively. Holden was confused about his brother’s death creating an “emptiness” with in him. This emptiness soon develops into a constant melancholy state, clinical depression.
Clinically depressed patients often experience a great deal of loneliness and alienation whether done by themselves or others. Following Allie’s death
Holden hasn’t had many people he was able to relate to causing him to be alone and unable to express himself. Holden complains, “‘…everybody sticks together in these dirty little goddam cliques.’” (131). At school Holden feels left out as everyone else but him seems to belong somewhere. Even within his own family Holden feels as though, “[He’s] the dumb one.” (67). Although Holden should feel welcome and as though he belongs to his family he still finds a way to see himself as being excluded. Holden exhibits the symptoms of alienation and worthlessness.
Holden also thinks of suicide occasionally as his life seems to become too much for him to handle. Suicidal thoughts are a warning sign that a person maybe clinically depressed. While upset Holden thought, “What I really felt like, was committing suicide.” (104). Holden demonstrates the symptom of constant thoughts about death. Holden allows himself to get overly upset about things and tends to overreact even to the point of ending his own life.
After completing a psychological evaluation of Holden Caulfield, it is determined that he is suffering from Clinical Depression therefore, he should take part in psychotherapy. Based on Holden’s behavior with alcohol it would be unreasonable to prescribe him medication out of fear of abuse. If Holden did not seem to have improved with in a year he should be placed in partial hospitalization in which he would spend all of his days at the hospital and his nights in the comfort of his home. Partial hospitalization would allow Holden to be treated by medication because he would be supervised by nursing staff.

Jonathan C. 4 said...

Over seven-million people in the United States, who are older than the age of seventeen, have Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is a mental illness that “is normally associated with trauma such as violent crimes, rape, and war experience.” Emotional symptoms of this disorder include: fear, anger, guilty, anxiety, feeling like you are not part of the world, helplessness, and hopelessness. Holden Caulfield is one of the unfortunate members of this group of people who suffers from Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. As the story progresses, each of Holden’s thoughts about the world and occurring events become greater proof that he has Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.
At an earlier age, Holden had a younger brother named Allie. Unfortunately, Allie had an untimely death that traumatized Holden. This disorder “may involve someone’s death,” which in this case is Allie. “Anyway, it was the Saturday of the football game with Saxon Hall. The game with Saxon Hall was supposed to be a very big deal around Pencey.” Holden is standing on a hill watching the game away from everyone else, no one has specifically told him that he needed to stay away from there. “Feeling like you are not part of the world” is a symptom of PTSD. “I slept in the garage the night he died, and I broke the goddam windows with my fist, just for the hell of it.” The anger that he felt from Allie’s death is another sure sign that he was Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, because he broke the windows of his family’s car with his fists without a single regret.
Holden’s traumatic experience with his brother plays a major contribution in his mental illness. “Allie, don’t let me disappear. Allie, don’t let me disappear.” It is possible that Holden feels guilty for Allie’s death, feeling that he might have been able to help him in some way or more than he did. In some way Holden feels responsible for Allie’s death because he believes it is his fault, so the guilt of his death is always there inside of himself. The inner struggle to find himself may also be a cause of his condition. He might see the change occurring within his mind as his own death and rebirth. The death of his past self traumatizes him and throws him into anxiety and fear as to what will happen to him next. “I couldn’t think of anything to talk about, though. I thought of asking her how she got to be a prostitute and all, but I was scared to ask her.” Although Holden always pushes for change, he always fails to finish what he was started. Holden pays for a prostitute so that he can finally “become mature” but then he decides to try and have a conversation with her instead, which made him feel “much more depressed than sexy.”
Without Holden having PTSD, Holden could not be Holden and the story could never flow properly. The anxiety that Holden feels in himself is the reason why he projects onto others by calling them phonies and pointing out their traits. Holden is afraid of what is happening to himself so he tries to cope with it by paying more attention to other people rather than himself. This also causes Holden to lash out at people sometimes and then seclude to himself, making it seem as though he is “not part of the world.” “I told him to go wash his own moron face – which was a pretty childish thing to say, but I was mad as hell.” After having a little skirmish with Stradlater, Holden leaves Pencey and does not go back.
“After completing a psychological evaluation of Holden Caulfield, it is determined that” he should not be administered into a psychiatric hospital. Finding himself is part of everyone’s life and it is completely natural. The death of his brother is a somewhat different story, because Holden is learning how to cope with his death then he will be perfectly fine. Nothing is wrong with the patient that a little bit of time cannot heal.

Ashley N. 4 said...

Many people suffer from borderline personality disorder, which is a condition that causes low self esteem, suicidal and aggressive behavior, impulsiveness, social problems and anxiety over isolation. This disorder commonly runs in the family, but there is also a great possibility of developing it from trauma at a young age. Holden Caulfield, the protagonist of the coming-of-age novel, The Catcher in the Rye, by J.D. Salinger shows several signs of having borderline personality disorder. He is habitually making rash decisions, producing suicidal thoughts and he does not seem to be confident, despite the bold chances he takes.
In the beginning of the novel, the reader gets a chance to see the impulsive side of Holden when he decides to "get the hell out of Pencey- right that same night" (51). But his reckless behavior begins to get more absurd when he recalls how he "broke all the goddam windows with [his] fist, just for the hell of it" (39) when his brother, Allie died. His hasty behavior also affects his social interaction with his former love, Sally when he tells her his plans for them in the future. Sally sees the faults in his plan and tells him that he, "can't just do something like that" (132), and thereafter, they "both hated each other's guts by that time" (133).
Throughout the novel, Holden has one phrase that he repeats when something amuses him, "that killed me." Although it seems like an innocent remark at first, it can be viewed as a foreshadowing of his suicidal behavior, where he just "felt like committing suicide. [He] felt like jumping out the window," (104), but the only reason that stopped him was that he "[wasn't] sure somebody would cover him up as soon as [he] landed. [He] didn't want rubbernecks looking at [him]...all gory" (104). There, even though Holden is thinking about killing himself and his dead body, he displays low self-esteem.
Even though there are a lot of things that could have a hand in Holden's diagnosis with borderline personality disorder, the most apparent one is the loss of his brother. He even admitted himself that "they [parents] were going to have [him] psychoanalyzed" (38-39) because of his reactions to his brother's death. This affects not only Holden negatively, but the others around him as well. He does not apply himself at school, and therefore he gets kicked out of school, which results in his parent's disappointment. His other also was neglectful in the parental area.
Although there is no cure for borderline personality disorder, it is best for him to seek out professional counseling, therapy or to make an effort to connect with others.

namastepce: thank thanks thanks thanks muchos gracias

Martin D 2 said...

Bipolar Disorder is a mental illness in which a person’s mood alternates between extreme mania and depression. During mania, people with bipolar disorder feel intensely elated, self-important, energetic, irritable, going on spending sprees, and have poor judgment. When depressed, they experience painful sadness, negative thinking, and indifference to things that used to bring them happiness. Sufferers usually think slowly, concentrate poorly, feel tired, and experience changes—usually a decrease—in their appetite and/or sleep. They often feel a sense of worthlessness or helplessness, as well. In addition, they may feel pessimistic or hopeless about the future and may think about or actually attempt to commit suicide. In some cases of severe depression, people may experience psychotic symptoms, such as delusions or hallucinations

There is a possibility that Holden Caulfield, from Catcher in the Rye, by J.D. Salinger, has a Bipolar Disorder, since he displays some of the symptoms. A great amount of irritation is shown toward Sally when she points out flaws in his plans of running away with her. He becomes hostile and tells her, "you give me a royal pain in the ass" (133). In the beginning, he comments on the fact that he has an abundant supply of money, because his grandmother kept sending him “money for my birthday about four times a year” (52), but towards the end of the novel, he is forced to borrow from his sister, Phoebe. Also, Holden frequently asks people if they want a drink, like the time when he was on the train with Mrs. Morrow and asks, “Would you care for a cocktail?” (57), where the drinks are usually "on him," and giving money to the nuns for charity. An example of his impaired decision making and poor judgment was his plans to run away with Sally Hayes, pretend to be mute, and building a cabin in the woods. His cynicism is constant as he repeatedly generalizes everyone on the basis of the things they own, their status, looks, and if they’re “phony.” He once expressed thoughts of suicide and “felt like jumping out the window” (104).

After completing a psychological evaluation of Holden Caulfield, it is determined that he is suffering from Bipolar Disorder, therefore, he should seek help from a therapist and get some kind of treatment, although there is no cure for it. Some treatment options include psychotherapy and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT).

nashally t 2 said...

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, also known as PTSD, is a psychological disorder that usually is developed in someone by witnessing or "experiencing someones death" or a serious accident. Most patients with this disorder tend to disconnect themselves from home, school and other things. Most of these symptoms can be found in the main character Holden Caulfield from The Catcher in the Rye by J.D Salinger.

One of the main symptoms of PTSD is "decline in school perfomance." Holden was kicked out of Pencey for what I guess is he didnt pay attention and didnt care for it. Also PTSD has a symptom of "excessive activity or involvment with others." This describs Holden well because to me it seems as if he always needs to be with someone. If he's alone she always wants to call someone and try to talk to them or plan to meet up somewhere. When diagnosed with PTSD, its mostly caused by "something that made you feal fear" or some sort of "helplessness." For Holden, those symptoms do apply because when Allie dided Holden seemed to be mostly sad because he couldnt be there to save Allie from passing away. Other symptoms of PTSD such as "life-threatening re-enactment" or "wish for revenge, action-oriented responses to trauma" arent exactly symptoms Holden has.

The main symptoms that Holden has shown throughout the book is "decline in school performance" and avoiding contact with his own thoughts that "arouse memories of the trauma." Holden was kicked out of Pencey and failed 4 out of his 5 classes. He only passed one class, which was english, and only because he "had all that Beowulf and Lord Randal My Son stuff when [he] was at the Whooton School"(10). He didnt seem to care about failing it either. Holden says that the school "gave [him] frequent warnings to start applying himself" and admits that "[he] didnt do it" (4). With his brother Allie dying he seems to always think about it. he'd tell us memories of him about how Allie had "very red hair" and how much of a "nice kid"(38) he was. He's very attatched to those memories and always finds time to talk to him or think about him.

After completing a psychological evaluation of Holden Caulfield, it is determine that he has a case of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder therefore he should start seeing a pyschiatrist and get help as soon as he can. Having this disorder can really bring him down on his life and make him choose a lot of wrong choices such as getting kicked out of Pencey.

Savannah W 2 said...

Holden from the novel The Catcher In The Rye By J.D Salinger is a very interesting character with a very interesting view of the world. To some readers Holden is considered to be crazy, and to some readers he is thought of as a misunderstood teenager. Some might ask “why does Holden think everybody is a phony?”. Or “why does he talk in such a sarcastic manner?” Holden is clinically depressed and shows signs of clinical depression throughout the book on several occasions.

Clinical depression , sometimes called major depressive disorder, or unipolar depression “is a common mood disorder psychology and psychiatry , in which a person's enjoyment of life and ability to function . Some symptoms are intense sadness, melancholia , numbness, despair, suicidal thoughts and alienation. Holden shows symptoms of this disease throughout the book .

When Holden was 13 “they were going to have [him] psychoanalyzed”(38) which led readers to think that Holden was really crazy, but Holden was suffering from the loss of his brother Allie who got “leukemia and died” (38). Clinical depression can come from the result of a traumatic event such as death in the family member and Holden was really close to his brother and not having him there was a tough thing, mentally for him. Clinical depression sometimes also comes from lack of support from family and friends. Holden only looks to his sister Phoebe, and brother Allie who is no longer there to support him. Where as Holden thinks most of the people in the world around him are phonies, he enables himself to make friends and alienates himself. Holden sometimes thinks of suicide. He quotes “what I really felt like though was committing suicide”(104) He also drinks a lot which is used as a way to numb the pain. He doesn’t really enjoy himself like he should for a teenager and this will lead to more and more complications.

The best disease to say Holden has is clinical depression and for that he is in a psyche ward which might help him. But he shows most of the symptoms of clinical depression which later on leads to other forms of depression.

Katherine Z 4 said...

A person can be diagnosed with a psychological phenomenon called Post Traumatic Stress Disorder when they are repeatedly coming into contact with life or death situations. An average person will develop this disorder when they’re face with deaths in their families, or they witness such dramatic events regarding people risking their lives like the fire fighters. Even after the danger or shock passes by, these people who experience this situation will often change their view on life. Some of the physical symptoms of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder frequently refer to as PTSD, includes experiencing headaches, sweating, being easily started and frightened. Some of the emotional symptoms of PTSD include feelings of fear, anger, guilt, anxiety, helplessness, hopelessness. It also reduces your awareness of your surroundings or feelings.

In the book The Catcher in the Rye by J.D.Salinger, based on the symptoms of PTSD it’s possible that Holden Caulfield have this psychological phenomenon. Holden have display many traits that have matched with those of PTSD such as experiencing feelings of not belonging to this world, he has display symptoms of feeling guilty, sudden headaches, and having multiple personalities. It is believed that he started developing PTSD when his brother Allie died from leukemia. Holden often recalls back to days before Allie died, when he used to take him everywhere, but one day “[He] didn’t take him” but Allie “[Didn’t] get sore about anything.” Allie’s the kind of person that [Never] gets sore about anything.” [99] Holden is feeling guilty how that one day he didn’t take Allie biking with him, even if he did its not going to change the fact that Allie had died already. However, Holden unable to deal with the emotions from Allie’s death starts to felt guilt for the things that he should have done but did not do with Allie.

Holden have often times in the book experience feelings of helplessness and depression. While Holden was still in Spencer, one night he looked out into the night and realized that “[It] was even depressing out in the street.” Face with this silent night Holden “[Feels] so lonesome and rotten.” [50] Throughout this book Holden have mention how depress he is or with his surroundings, even though he’s the one that isolating everyone, not accepting interactions with others, he still feel lonely As a result of Allie’s death Holden have been often depressed, even to the extend of not wanting to have contact with people, maybe for the fear of losing more people that he cares about, like the death of Allie.

Another symptom of PTSD that Holden experiences is headaches and sweating. Holden was walking when he started to “[Sweat] like a bastard.” He didn’t do any exercise but just by normal walking [His] whole shirt and underwear and everything” were soaked, by that time [He] could hardly catch [his] breath.” [198] Ever since Allie’s death Holden have often experience signs of sweating, or getting headaches out of nowhere, they just comes and disappears, there’s no time limit on how long they come and stay, its just a matter of getting them. He can’t control them, its just one of those things that comes, no matter what you do.

After completing a psychological evaluation of Holden Caulfield, it is determined that he has Post Traumatic Stress Disorder formally known as PTSD therefore, he should go seek professional help. A psychologists or any qualified mental health professor are experts at dealing with people that has PTSD, they know many effective ways for the patients as well as their families, on ways to best deal with this. They teach the patient and their families’ ways to reduce this stress, and how signs of symptoms can be recognize. Another way to deal with PTSD can be effective through group or peer discussions, where the patient talks openly with others, often realizing that they’re not alone in this, that there’s others out there that are in the same situation as they are.

laura b said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
laura b said...

It is estimated that 7-18% of the population suffers from clinical depression.(Bland, R.C. (1997). "Epidemiology of Affective Disorders: A Review". Can J Psychiatry 42: 367?377) This common mood disorder ,where a person’s life becomes nothing to the them, is seen in people of all ages, although “in children [it] is not as obvious as it is in adults“ (
and often symptoms become most noticeable when the patient is a young adult. An individual suffering from clinical depression just starts “feeling sad for no reason” or “not having a reason to do something.” Clinical depression ruins the enjoyment of everyday life because sadness, despair and numbest take over. The person becomes lazy and unmotivated which can lead to negative thinking and substance abuse. This can also bring the person to hallucinations or delusions. Although clinical depression is thought to be heredity, it can also be caused by a traumatic event such as a death in the family, school problems, or stress at home. It often is characterized by making people feel lonely, worthless and hopeless . Clinical Depression is often undiagnosed, though it is a serious and life-changing illness.
Holden Caulfield of the novel The Catcher in the Rye by J.D Salinger could easily be diagnosed with clinical depression. He exhibits characteristics that are typical in clinical depression and has many obvious symptoms. Salinger’s descriptions and thoughts of Holden throughout the book let us see his depressive behaviors. Holden himself struggles with understanding his lack of happiness and he openly states that he feel hopeless and doesn’t know why.

Even though he is sixteen and should be enjoying life, Holden Caulfield “was feeling so damn depressed and lonesome”(153) . His parents are spending a huge amount of money giving him an education in a great school, but he is unmotivated and “…was flunking four subjects and not applying [him] self and all.”(4). In the story Holden was always talking about women though his relationships still seem superficial. He had a lot of opportunities of losing his virginity but there was always something that stopped him from experiencing it . At one point of the story he gets convinced to pay a prostitute but “sexy was about the last thing [he] was feeling. [He] felt much more depressed than sexy”(95)

Near the end of the novel, as Holden walks down the street he becomes so overwhelmed with thoughts and every time he would step off the curb he would have a weird “feeling that [he would] never get to the other side of the street. [He] thought [he would] just go down, down, down, and nobody would ever see [him] again.”(197)

Like in many families, depression can be inherited. In the book it shows us that Holden’s mother is depressed and that could be one of the causes why Holden has feelings of despair. Holden’s clinical depression could also be caused by the traumatic event of his brother’s death. When Holden felt really depressed “[he started talking sort of out loud, to Allie.” (98) This clearly proves that he still working through the death of his brother and his emotions towards it.

After completing a psychological evaluation of Holden Caulfield, it is determined that he is suffering from Clinical Depression therefore, he should seek psychotherapy. He should go to group therapy with people his age group that suffer from that problem. Regular exercise and a healthy diet could improve his condition as well. If symptoms do not improve medication may need to considered.

::HebaK:: 4 said...

Holden Caulfield exhibits a psychological phenomena called the Borderline Personality disorder, or BPD. BPD is a “pervasive pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, and emotions.” ( A person symbolizes this disorder if they have identity disturbances, angry outbursts, relationship problems, and/or paranoid ideas. Alcohol abuse, self-injury, emptiness, and/or “frantic efforts to avoid being alone”( can express signs of having Borderline Personality Disorder. Holden, from The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger, exemplifies these experiences and symptoms.

Throughout the novel, The Catcher in the Rye, certain evidence shows that Holden suffers from BPD. Holden experiences paranoid ideas, relationship instability, and impulsive behavior. Holden had trouble with a prostitute and her manager. A single punch in the stomach led Holden to believe that “[he] was dying. [He] thought [he] was drowning or something.”( Salinger 103) A punch in your stomach is nothing like slowly and calmly losing your life while drowning, Holden was being paranoid. [He] is a paranoiac in reverse, [he] suspect[s] people of plotting to make [him] happy.” Paranoid ideas are symptoms and signs of having the Borderline Personality Disorder. Another sign that shows Holden has the disorder is his relationship instability. Holden has trouble keeping friends and family close, beside Phoebe. He lost his relationship with Jane, and Sally was starting to think that Holden actually was crazy. He caused a disturbance telling Sally “[they should] drive up to Massachusetts and Vermont..[with] a hundred and eighty dollars]” (Salinger 132)and live their. Holden has problems keeping his relationships stable on both sides. Impulsive behavior is also one of the symptoms of BPD. Holden broke windows with his bare hands after the death of his brother, Allie. These three symptoms prove that Holden has Borderline Personality Disorder.

BPD is most common around a persons early adulthood. The causes for this disorder are “a traumatic childhood, a vulnerable temperament, and stressful maturational events during adolescence.” (• Genetics and childhood abuse are other causes. Patients have high emotional and impulsivity instability, these traits are known to be heritable. The social world is also a major cause for BPD. Holden has a different view of the world, he sees things differently. Therefore he thinks in a more complicated way, he sees things in a painful more real way. Being the only out of many, who is able to decipher the difference between phony and real gives him emotional instability. Holden has Borderline Personality Disorder because he had a traumatic childhood because of Allies sickness and death, and from the fact that no one understands the ways he thinks.

Borderline Personality Disorder has an affect on Holden, and the people around him. Holden has emotional instability which causes the people around him like Stradlater and Sally to get into arguments and fights. Holden’s maturing is slowed down because of his traumatic experience and childhood. He doesn’t want to give up on Allie. He talks to him when he’s crossing the street and still like him best out of anyone. Holden’s career and education is disturbed by this. Holden is too busy being depressed and frustrated to concentrate on the present.

After completing a psychological evaluation of Holden Caulfield, it is determined that he is suffering from Borderline Personality Disorder ,therefore, he should get treatments and medical help. He could get help by Dialectical behavioral therapy, Psychotherapy, and/or Psychoanalysis. Dialectical Behavioral therapy is made for patients so they can what rational is and what emotional is, and the difference between acceptance and change. It is “an exchange and negotiation between therapist and client.”( Psychotherapy and Psychoanalysis are traditional treatments that might involve hospitalization and deal with personality disorders. Holden Caulfield is diagnosed with Borderline Personality disorder and should get medical attention to treat him.

Kellie L 4 said...

Post traumatic stress disorder is the term used for a severe and continuous emotional reaction to an "extreme psychological trauma." It can be caused by serious accidents, assaults and rapes, or witnessing events that are somewhat violent. The symptoms of this disorder include restlessness, aggressiveness, depression, intrusion, and avoidance. Though these symptoms can be very serious, there are some treatments that help the patient cope with post traumatic stress disorder and sometimes rid them of this sickness. Critical Incident Stress Management is an early intervention that is used to reduce traumatic effects of an incident. Usually post traumatic stress disorder is treated by using a combination of psychotherapy, therapy, group therapy, and exposure therapy.

From the knowledge of the symptoms that PTSD causes, Holden falls under the category of having PTSD. Restlessness is a symptom that Holden experiences many times throughout the book. No matter where Holden is, he is never tired, and always wants to do something different. He also gets very bored, especially when he is with the same person for a long time. After a hectic night fighting Stradlater and talking to Ackley, Holden says "Everybody was asleep or out or home for the weekend, and it was very, very quiet and depressing in the corridor" (51). Holden acts as if he has not seen anyone or did anything all day. This is a sign of restlessness because Holden is always bored or ready to do something new when he is finished with doing something else. Another symptom Holden experiences is aggressiveness which is shown through Holden's fight with Stradlater. Holden says, "All I know is I got up from the bed, like I was going down to the can or something, and and then I tried to sock him, with all my might, right smack in the toothbrush, so it would split his goddam throat open" (43). Holden is aver reacting because Stradlater did not do anything to provoke Holden. All Stradlater did was not tell Holden about his date. Holden's aggressiveness is a symptom that is caused by PTSD. Depression is the main theme that Holden experiences and is also another symptom. Because of Holden's negative outlook on the world, he is always complaining about something. When Holden is having a conversation with another person, he even complains about the words they use. Holden says, "Grand. There's a word I really hate. It's a phony. I could puke every time I hear it" (9). Not only does Holden complain about words, but he also complains about people's personalities and calls them "phonies." Holden's negativity leads to depression, because the more negative he gets, the more depressed he feels about the world and the people that surround him. Intrusion is another symptom Holden has in regards to PTSD. Throughout the book, Holden keeps having flashbacks about his dead brother Allie. As Holden remembers him, he says, "I remember once, the summer I was around twelve, teeing off and all, and having a hunch that if I turned around all of a sudden, I'd see Allie" (38). Allie comes up a lot in this book because of Holden's flashbacks which is the symptom of intrusion. The final symptom that Holden displays in this book is avoidance. If Holden meets someone or is with someone, he goes out of his way to avoid them. Holden even makes excuses and lies to avoid the people that he is with. One example is the prostitute that Holden talks to. After he ordered the prostitute, he askes her, "Do you mind cutting it out?" (97) Holden isolates himself from the prostitute even after he ordered her. To avoid her even more, Holden tells her a lie, "I'm not in the mood, I just told you. I just had and operation" (97). Holden's untruthfulness is the final symptom of avoidance.

After finding evidence of Holden having this phenomena, there is a reason why Holden has this issue. PTSD is caused by seious accidents and violent events. The only serious accident that Holden experiences throughout the book is when his brother Allie died. Because Holden brings up Allie in the book numerous times, the cause of Holden's disorder is the loss of his brother Allie. Holden's disorder has an effect on everyone in the book because all of his actions are influenced by his disorder. The effects on Holden are that he is always depressed and he will always be thinking about Allie in the back of his head. Phoebe is heavily influenced also because she feels as though her brother is very strange, but still respects and loves him.

After completing a psychological evaluation of Holden Caulfield, it is determined that Holden has the condition of post traumatic stress disorder. Therefore, he should seek help from a therapist as soon as possible because the longer he has this condition, the longer it will effect him, and the longer it will take to heal.

henry d:2 said...

Borderline Personality Disorder is a devastating mental health condition distinguish by extreme black and white thinking, unstable shifting emotions, unstable self-image, and relationship problems. Symptoms from Borderline Personality Disorder often include aggressive behavior, unstable emotions and impulses, a low sense of self-worth, and constant anxiety from being abandoned. Although these are common emotions experienced once in a while, Borderline Personality Disorder symptoms tends to be more intense and destructive and frequent occurring happen. In worse cases Dissociation happens from the disturbance of one’s self. Heredity and Childhood trauma are often the case that causes Borderline Personality Disorder.
In the book Catcher in the Rye by J.D Salinger, the main protagonist, Holden
Caulfield, suffers from Borderline Personality Disorder. Holden tends to portray himself
with a low sense of self-worth, while talking to Spencer he says “Life is a game, boy. Life is
a game that one plays according to the rules.” (8) and Holden responds back with obedience yet in he is actually ridiculing it “Game, my ass. Some game. If you get on the side where all the hot-shots are, then it’s a game, all right—I’ll admit that. But if you get on the other side,
where there aren’t any hot-shots, then what’s a game about it? Nothing. No game.” (8) Holden’s low sense of self-worth is shown here for he portrays himself on the “other side” (8) of the game. Ultimately feeling alone and victimize, as though the world is against him. Other symptoms like unstable emotions and impulses are shown when Holden was talking with Sally. Sally told him “Don’t shout please” (123) yet he thought it was funny because he wasn’t “even shouting.” (123) It is clear Holden was unable to control his emotions for he was shouting without realizing. Holden view on the world is black and white for he pictures adults as phonies and never sympathetic and children as innocent, yet Phoebe is wise and mature beyond her years. He portrays as adults as phonies and unsympathetic, and it is shown when he was hurt after talking to nuns for it made him “so dam sad” (114) when he thought “about it“ (114) it made him sad because the nuns were completely opposite, and went against his views on the world. Furthermore Holden shows signs of anxiety over abandonment even though he is clueless about it. Holden’s constant questioning over the ducks migrating shows how he worries about a broader topic of vanishing. Allie like the ducks vanished without a trace, with his constant reference to the ducks with reference to Allie, shows his anxiety of abandonment for he was abandoned by Allie when he died. There are many reasons why he has BPD, yet the most favorable of why Holden has this disorder may be due to two traumas in his life. The death of Allie and the suicide of one of his classmates.
After completing a psychological evaluation of Holden Caulfield, it is determined
that he is suffering from Borderline Personality Disease therefore, he should immediate get
professional counseling for it is an important part of treatment and he should take medicines such as antidepressants or mood stabilizers. Most treated people improved over time, but it is challenging and the process takes years

jimmy v. 2 said...

Borderline personality disorder is a mental illness that is serious,effecting up to 14% of the human population. It causes problems in everyday life and possibly death for patients. This disease causes victims to exhibit signs of instability in many areas of life, including; mood, self-image, behavior, and identity. Such insecure living makes depression a common problem that comes with BPD. A person with BPD may hide their insecurity from the people they come in contact with. This facade may last years until finally the victim's ''defense structure crumbles'', most likely after a stressful situation. Relationships with others may be tense and awkward with the patient having problems handling intimate or close connections. There is no medicinal cure for BPD and most of the time symptoms fade away. However, for more difficult cases, "psychotherapy that centers on emotional themes arising in the interaction between patient and therapist, known as transference-focused therapy, stimulates the most change in people with borderline personality disorder''.
Holden Caulfield from the book ''The Catcher In The Rye'' by J.D. Salinger shows many signs of borderline personality disorder. Over the course of the story, Holden shows an inability to have close relationships with other characters. Such a character is Ackley, who appears in the first half of the story. When Ackley comes into Holden's room while he is reading, Holden gets annoyed by him thinking, ''You couldn't read anything with a guy like Ackley around''(21). Yet later on, Holden ''asked Mal if he minded Ackley came along with [them]''(36) to the movies. One of BPD's symptoms is having unstable behavior. Holden shows this by loathing Ackley one moment and the next, including him in his Saturdat night plans. Another aspect of this scene that reveals Holden having BPD is that he complies with going to the movies. He says, ''If there's one thing I hate, it's the movies.''(2) earlier on. He goes to the movies with Ackley and Mal Brossard when he clearly says he dislikes them. This may be a way of socially rebuilding his ''defense structure'' with it symbolically cracking with his brother Allie's death. Holden refuses to show himself because he has a problem with his identity and self-image, not knowing whether to mature or stay a kid. Borderline personality disorder is a result of this inner clash with his emotions and thoughts.
The disorder of having a borderline personality is usually caused by childhood trauma and is associated with problems with anxiety or strees. Holden latched on to the illness after an extremely traumatic experience such as going through Allie's death. Holden started to build a defense structure after Allie's death. He said Allie was a nice, likable kid and ''terrifically intelligent''(38). With the death of such an innocent person that is close to him, Holden felt that he must protect himself from the unforgiving world. He ''broke all the windows in the garage''(39) and forever prevented his hand from making a fist. This symbol of weakness and inability to fight Holen covers with Allie's baseball glove. This tradgedy triggers a chain of events and Holden is delved deeper into the disorder. The after effects of his beloved brothers death caused him to stress and worry for his mother who ''gets headaches quite frequently.''(178). Probably from the worry she was feeling herself. Holden feels he places more worry on his family and that tarnishes his connection with them. This is another sign Holden has BPD.
Holden is greatly effected by this disorder. Throughout the book he struggles to create intimate
relationshops with other characters such as Sally, suggesting they'd ''stay in these cabin camps and stuff like that''(132) until their money ran out and then when it did theyd ''live somewhere with a brook and all and, later on, [they'd] get married or something''(132). This only scares Sally away and tears their connection. Holden's family is effected also by this phenomena, especially Phoebe. Though his mother and father worry for him, they don't really know what Holden is going through. Holden relates greatly with Phoebe seeing as how she went through the same traumatic experience. She is effected by having to also, like her mother and father, stress over Holden. He was the only one that hurt himself over Allie's death and being so close to Allie's age, it was like losing a best friend and a brother. Phoebe only sits idlely by while Holden tries to preserve her innocence.
After completing a psychological evaluation of Holden Caulfield, it is determined that he is diagnosed with borderline personality disorder therefore, he should seek psychiatric help. Interacting with a therapist for transference-focused therapy may be the best way to rid him of the disorder.

DAvid T 2 said...

Borderline Personality Disorder is a term used for when a person feels insecure about themselves. A person that has Borderline Personality Disorder experiences fears of being left alone. To avoid being “abandoned”, they do things such as lie and steal. People with Borderline Personality Disorder are also “suicidal”. Borderline Personality Disorder patients also have “problems with unstable and intense relationships.” Borderline Personality Disorder is not limited to these symptoms alone. Borderline Personality Disorder is “hereditary”, but a person can also get it by having a “traumatic experience” at a young age.
Holden Caulfield, in J.D. Salinger’s The Catcher in the Rye, shows possibilities of having BPD. Holden exhibits a “frantic anxiety about being left alone.” In the novel, Holden tells the readers that he is “the most liar you ever saw in your life” (16). When Holden meets someone for the first time, he lies about his name. Holden lies quite frequently in the novel. Even though Holden gives out aliases, he never tells them his real name. Holden fears being “abandoned,” but he rarely gives his real name to people he has just met. Even when Holden was crossing the street, he felt an anxiety of being abandoned. Holden sought out to Allie for help. Holden wanted Allie to not “’let [Holden] disappear.
Holden also has “suicidal behavior.” After Maurice had punched Holden until he got the five dollars Holden had owed for Sunny’s visit, Holden “really felt like…committing suicide” (104). It was only a lousy five dollars that they fought for, and yet Holden wants to kill himself. No matter where he goes, he thinks about vanishing. Even when he goes to visit Phoebe, Holden wonders what would happen, “in case [he] died” (156). Where ever Holden goes, he thinks about his own death.
Holden has some issues with his love life. He is confused about sex, but at the same time he is intrigued. When Holden had paid Maurice for a night with Sunny, Holden freaked out at the thought of having sex. He said it was “weird.” Over and over Sunny tries to make Holden have sex with her, but Holden backs away. Holden is not ready for sex. Then, Holden calls up Sally and they go on their date. Holden asks Sally if she would run away with him and life a happy life (132). Holden yells at Sally when she refuses. He tries desperately to convince her to run away with him just like how Sunny was trying to get Holden to have sex with her. Holden cannot get a secure grip on his relationships. He went from almost having sex with a prostitute to almost running away with a friend he likes. In both cases, Holden breaks down and we see his insecurity.
People with BPD get BPD through heredity or through a “traumatic experience”. Holden got his BPD through the traumatic experience from his brother, Allie’s death. After Allie’s death, Holden smashed all of the windows in the garage and he broke his hand. Due to the trauma from Allie’s death, Holden had done some self-inflicted pain. Holden gets stressed about Allie’s death when it is mentioned. He gets emotional about it and it seems that he is the only one who hasn’t gotten past Allie’s death well enough to go on through life. When Holden was scared that he would disappear while crossing the street, he pretended Allie was still there, protecting him. Holden asks Allie not to “’let [him] disappear.’” (198). He still seeks out Allie and relies on him for protection.
Holden cannot move on with his life. He is in a stage where he is ready to give up on life. Holden doesn’t really care about what happens to him. He always thinks about committing suicide. But, he affects others with his plans and ideas. He tries to make Sally run away with him and makes her break out in tears and Holden starts to wonder what phoebe would do if he died. No one in his family could withstand another death. By having all of these depressing thoughts, Holden will make everyone around him depressed and eventually insecure.
After completing a psychological evaluation of Holden Caulfield, it is determined that he is diagnosed with Borderline Personality Disorder therefore, he should seek psychiatric help. Meeting with a “professional” consoler and taking some antidepressants may be the best way to deal with his disorder.

Kim C 2 said...

Clinical depression is a common mood disorder in psychology of which deep despair restricts someone from enjoyment of life. It affects one’s ability to socialize with others and it affects one’s daily life. Other names for this type of mood disorder are major depressive order or unipolar depression. There are many causes for this type of mood disorder like lack of sleep or poor sleep quality, the season winter when daylight hours are short, low self-esteem or self-defeating, death of a relative, school problems, and inability to have proper sex. There are many more other causes that may lead to clinical depression, these causes mainly fall into two categories: physiological and sociopsychological.
This mood disorder matches Holden from The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger. Holden was always “too depressed to care” about everything (61). At the hotel when Holden just arrived at New York, “the bellboy” was “even more depressing than what the room was” to Holden (61). In life, everything is depressing or pitiful, nothing was joyful or at least interesting to Holden. Holden also have trouble trying to socialize with people. He always “feels like talking for awhile” but then again he “couldn’t think of anything to talk about (95). Holden doesn’t really know how to socialize and enjoy life. These symptoms lead to believing that Holden is suffering from clinical depression.
There are many causes for this mood disorder and many also relates to Holden. The season winter may cause this mood disorder when daylight hours are short and this book begins at the season of winter. Also, Allie who is “dead now” is also a main cause for Holden’s mod disorder (38). Holden always brought up the topic of sex yet he was always “a little nervous” which makes him still a “virgin” (92). Holden insists that he “had quite a few opportunities to lose [his] virginity and all, but [he] had never got around to it yet” (92). The death of a close relative who Holden really respects and loves and his inability to have proper sex clearly shows Holden as a sufferer of clinical depression.
Clinical depression had caused Holden to have different views on the world from everyone else. Holden believes he can “stay in these cabin camps” with someone “till the dough runs out”, he was also willing to “chop the wood in the winter time and all” (132). Thought others like Sally thinks he “just can’t do something like that” (132). When Holden went back home to visit Phoebe, she said to Holden that he “[doesn’t] like anything that’s happening” (169). Holden replied to her saying that he “likes Allie” and he likes “doing what [he’s] doing right now” (170). Holden’s mood disorder had caused him to feel like being excluded from the world where he can live his own life. Holden also is stuck in time where he still misses Allie so much that he can’t move on.
For this type of mood disorder, there are many treatments to it as well. There are treatments such as medication where patients take ant-depressants. The change in life style with regular exercise and a healthy diet may also benefit a patient’s condition. Another type of treatment is psychotherapy where a patient receives counseling individually or as a group. There are may other types of treatment for clinical depression. These are more of the well known to people. Patients who suffer from clinical depression must receive treatments to allow conditions to get better.

will h 4 said...

Clinical Depression disrupts everyday life because of sadness and despair. This disorder is different from everyday depression. It is very serious and has to be diagnosed medically. People with clinical depression are usually “feeling sad for no reason” ( Clinical depression can be caused by a large lack of sleep. A person with this disorder is very tired most of the time. Developing clinical depression is also partially because of hereditary. If a person has had a traumatic event in there life or a large amount of stress in work or school can cause clinical depression.

Holden Caulfield shows quite a few symptoms of clinical depression. One symptom that he shows is periods of sobbing, “ All of a sudden [he] began to cry. [He] couldn’t help it.”(179). At this point Holden is upset because he took Phoebe’s money and just leaves her behind. He was in the “hat-check room”(153) and “[he] was crying and all.”(153). One of the symptoms of Clinical Depression is avoiding social contact with others. Holden is the exact opposite of that. “ Would you care to stop on the way and join me for a cocktail?”(60). Holden asks this to a number of people that he meets. This could show that he has low self-esteem, which is a symptom of the disorder and is always trying to make new friends. Holden also shows his low self-esteem when, “[He] hate[s] it when somebody has cheap suitcases.”(110). Holden might hate cheap suitcases because he feels bad about himself and the people with cheaper bags might feel even worse and he does not want anybody to feel as terrible as he does about himself. Holden also shows the symptom of procrastination. He is always putting off on going home. Holden procrastinates going home because he is afraid of the consequences there will be because he got kicked out of Pencey.

Holden could have Clinical depression for many reasons. One reason why he may have this disorder is because he was traumatized when, “[He] slept in the garage the night [Allie] died and [he] broke all the goddam windows with [his] fist, just for the hell of it.” (39). Holden is affected greatly by Allie’s death because he cannot get past it. Another reason why Holden could be diagnosed with clinical depression is because he has had a large lack of sleep during the three days he spent in New York City. “Even though it was so late, old Ernie’s was jammpacked.”(83). He stayed up all night that night and most of the other nights he was away. Holden could also have clinical depression because he was stressed that, “[He] wasn’t supposed to come back [to Pencey] after Christmas vacation, on account of [he] was flunking four subjects and not applying [himself] and all.”(4). Holden could be stressed that, “[His] Daddy’s gonna kill [him],”(165), because he got kicked out of another school.

This phenomenon affects Holden and many other characters in the novel. Holden is always sad and lonesome because of the clinical depression. This disorder has affected all of the people that he has tried to make friends with. They are affected because Holden is always so depressed that these people do not see the real Holden. He is also affected because this disorder holds him back and he cannot make or keep friends very well. This also affects the people he tries making friends with because he disappoints them by not being friendly with them, not because he does not want to, but because he cannot.

Holden Caulfield shows most of the symptoms of Clinical Depression. It is my recommendation that he goes to a Therapist twice a week alone. He should also attend a group meeting three times a month to discuss problems he is having with others who are having similar problems. It is recommended that takes one of the many available “selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.”( Holden should take one of these pills when he wakes up in the morning and one more before he goes to bed at night. The best brand pill to take is either Celexa or Prozac. After a few weeks with these treatments Mr. Caulfield will begin to see great improvements in his depression isssues.

henry d:2 said...
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Herman T 2 said...
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